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Mina Rees: mathematician, first female president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and head of the mathematics department of the Office of Naval Research of the United States.

Esther Rolle! "I told them (the producers) I couldn`t compound the lie that Black fathers don`t care about their children. I was proud of the family life I was able to introduce to television." - referring to her show "Good Times" and her insistence on having a husband and father figure" ~ The beautiful Esther Rolle

As an eight-year-old, Mary Ellen Wilson was severely abused by her foster parents, Francis and Mary Connolly. Her case of child abuse led to the creation of the New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. Image dated 1874.

Constance Lloyd Wilde, while most famous for being the wife of Oscar Wilde, was truly a force of her own. She was a theater critic, journalist, and activist for women's suffrage and dress reform.

British Paintings: The unseen picture of Mrs Oscar Wilde

Louisa May Alcott: Louisa May Alcott is widely known as the writer of Little Women, a self reflective children's book published in 1868. The success of this book led to other books based on Alcott's life such as Little Men and Jo's Boys. Louisa's success as a writer allowed her to support her sisters and parents. Prompted by her wish to promote womens' roles and her hatred for slavery, as a young adult during the Civil War, she volunteered to be a nurse in an army hospital in Washington,...

Women in Chicago being arrested for wearing one piece bathing suits, without the required leg coverings. 1922

Additional Perspective | Long Game

On the morning of September 4, 1957, fifteen-year-old Dorothy Counts set out on a harrowing path toward Harding High, where-as the first African American to attend the all-white school – she was greeted by a jeering swarm of boys who spat, threw trash, and yelled epithets at her as she entered the building. A young woman of uncommon courage. Here she is, age 70, still absolutely elegant, poised, and a woman of uncommon courage.

1910, Tye Leung Schulze was hired as the first Chinese federal civil servant at the Angel Island Immigration Station, where she met her future husband, Charles Schulze. At the time they had to travel to Washington State to marry because California did not allow marriages between Chinese and white Americans. In 1912, Tye voted in the presidential primaries and became “the first Chinese woman in the history of the world to exercise the electoral franchise.” (SF Examiner May 12, 1912)

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn - was a labor leader, activist, and feminist who played a leading role in the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Flynn was a founding member of the American Civil Liberties Union and a visible proponent of women's rights, birth control, and women's suffrage.

Elizabeth Gurley Flynn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lucretia Marchbanks, who earned praise and a good living as the finest chef in the Black Hills. This photo is in the Adams Museum in Deadwood, SD. [ Ava Speese recalled that when her parents moved to Nebraska in 1907, her mother, Rosetta, drove one of the group's three wagons. "She took care of her own team, greased the wagon wheels, and she was just turned sixteen." The necessity of community effort enabled women to enjoy a measure of independence.]

On Sep 13, 1944, a princess from India lay dead at Dachau concentration camp. She had been tortured by the Nazis, then shot in the head. Her name was Noor Inayat Khan. The Germans knew her only as Nora Baker, a British spy who had gone into occupied France using the code name Madeline. She carried her xmitter from safe house to safe house with the Gestapo trailing her, providing communications for her Resistance unit.

Mary Gawthorpe (1881-1973) British suffragette and trade unionist, strongly involved in the Women's Social and Political Union in Leeds. She was imprisoned a number of times and badly beaten for her political activities. Later she co-edited The Freewoman: A Weekly Feminist Review.

Mary Gawthorpe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aviator Jacqueline Cochran was the first woman to break the sound barrier and the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic. Learn more about this pioneer with Florida Memory. (photo: State Archives of Florida, Florida Memory)

Charlotte Despard (née French)(1844-1939), was an English-born, later Irish-based suffragist, novelist, Sinn Féin activist, vegetarian and anti-vivisection advocate. Shown here speaking at an anti-fascist rally in Trafalgar Square, London in June 1933.

Adm. Michelle Howard becomes first four-star woman AND the first four-star African American in Navy history. She’ll take over as the vice chief of naval operations, the No. 2 officer in the service. It’s the latest achievement for Howard, who previously was the first African-American woman to serve as a three-star officer in the U.S. military and command a U.S. Navy ship. Among her many accomplishments, she led the task force that rescued the real life Captain Phillips of the coast of Africa.

Shidzue Katō (加藤 シヅエ Katō Shizue), March 2, 1897 – December 22, 2001) was a 20th Century Japanese feminist and one of the first women elected to the Diet of Japan. Katō was best known as a pioneer in the birth control movement and a strong supporter of labour reform.

A World War I era American Red Cross nurse, knits - 1917

Marian Anderson, the elegant and groundbreaking contralto who was the first African American to sing at the Metropolitan Opera. She is probably best known to this generation for singing before a crowd of 75,000 at the Lincoln Memorial in 1939, after being refused permission to sing at Constitution Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution. DAR has made the effort to make up for the slight ever since, inviting Ms. Anderson to sing at the hall o

Montgomery Rice Becomes First Woman to Lead Morehouse School of Medicine

First African-American actress to win an Emmy for Outstanding Performance in a Dramatic Series in 1970 Actress Gail Fisher (photo taken in 1973).

Dorothy Hodgkin worked out the structure of penicillin, insulin and vitamin B12. But when, after 31 years of work, she won the Nobel Prize for science in 1964 the Daily Mail chose to run the story under the headline "Oxford housewife wins Nobel"

100 years of scientific breakthroughs - by women

British women employed as porters due to the shortage of men during World War I, London, UK, 1915.

Margaret Marian McPartland, (20 March 1918 – 20 August 2013), jazz pianist, composer and writer. She was the host of Marian McPartland's Piano Jazz on National Public Radio from 1978 until 2011. In 1969 she founded Halcyon Records, a recording company that produced albums for ten years. In 2000 she was named a National Endowment for the Arts Jazz Master. In 2004 she was given a Grammy Award for lifetime achievement. In 2010 she was named a member of the Order of the British Empire.