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July 15, 1954: The Boeing 367-80, also known as the Dash 80, made its first flight. The Dash 80 was the prototype for the 707, America's first jet airliner. See it on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, VA.

Boeing 367-80 Jet Transport | National Air and Space Museum

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April 9, 1959 - NASA introduced the Project Mercury astronauts to the world. Known as the Mercury Seven or Original Seven, they are (front row, left to right) Walter M. "Wally" Schirra Jr., Donald K. "Deke" Slayton, John H. Glenn Jr., M. Scott Carpenter, (back row) Alan B. Shepard Jr., Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom and L. Gordon Cooper, Jr. Image credit: NASA

Mercury 7 Astronauts | National Air and Space Museum

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On March 5, 1953, Polish Air Force pilot Lt. Franciszek Jarecki defected in a MiG-15 by flying to Bornholm, Denmark. It was the first intact MiG to reach the West. Jarecki wore this flight suit during his daring flight to freedom.

Pioneer 4 launched on March 3, 1959 and flew by the Moon the next day. This unflown duplicate of Pioneer 4 contains batteries to power its radio transmitter, a cosmic radiation counter, and other instruments. A gold-plated cone covers the instruments and serves as a communications antenna. #TimeNav

Launch of Pioneer 4 on a Juno II rocket on March 3, 1959. | Photo credit: NASA #TimeNav

Dual chamber, liquid-fuel engine assembly that powered the first stage of the two-stage Titan 1 intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).

February 6, 1959: The first successful flight of the Titan I intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). | Source: FAS.org

Supersonic RM-10 aerodynamic research vehicle used either on internally mounted solid fuel Deacon rocket to boost it or a double Deacon mounted at the rear of the model. The RM-10 was used by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) for supersonic heat testing from 1947 to 1955 at the NACA's Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Wallops Island, Virginia.

February 6, 1951: Technician Durwood Dereng measures elevation of double Deacon booster prior to launch of RM-10 research model at Wallops. | Photo credit: NASA

September 9, 1959: "Big Joe" unoccupied Mercury capsule launches on suborbital flight. It was the second flight in the Mercury program and first using an Atlas booster. This image shows "Big Joe" atop the Atlas rocket readied for launch. The capsule was recovered in the Atlantic. "Big Joe" is on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center. | Photo credit: NASA

Cockpit of the Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket #2 (A/C no. #37974, NACA-144), August 27, 1952.

Lt Colonel John Stapp made his second run on the Sonic Wind 1 rocket sled, which attained a speed of approximately 735 feet per second, on August 20, 1954.

On July 12, 1957, Dwight D. Eisenhower became the first president to employ a helicopter while in office riding in this Bell H-13J, now on display at the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center

June 25,1950: The Korean War began. The Navy's experience in the Korean War showed the need for a new long-range strike aircraft with high subsonic performance at very low altitude. The Grumman A-6 Intruder was designed with these needs in mind. See the Grumman A-6 Intruder pictured here at the Udvar-Hazy Center: s.si.edu/14uTemH

On June 8, 1959: The U.S. Navy attempted its first and last mail delivery via missile. A Regulus I missile was launched from the USS Barbero carrying two blue and red metal containers with 3,000 letters inside. | via @Evelyn Spencer Postal Museum

National Postal Museum

postalmuseum.si.edu

Able, a rhesus monkey, in the capsule and couch that carried her on a suborbital flight inside the nose cone of a Jupiter rocket launched on May 28, 1959. Able flew with Baker, a squirrel monkey, on the Able-Baker Mission. Both monkeys survived the flight and returned to Earth unharmed.

Baker, a squirrel monkey, perches on a model of the Jupiter rocket that launched her into space on a sub-orbital flight, along with a rhesus monkey named Able, on May 28, 1959.

On May 18, 1953: Jacqueline "Jackie" Cochran became the first woman to break the sound barrier. Here, she sits in the cockpit of a F-86 Sabre jet talking to Chuck Yeager. | Photo credit: US Air Force

Chelsey Bonestell's mural "Lunar Landscape" was unveiled at the Boston Museum's Haydon Planetarium on March 28, 1957. It is now in our collection.

Flight spare (backup) of the first tape recorder flown on a satellite. The recorder flew on the Explorer 3 satellite launched into Earth orbit on March 26, 1958.

Recorder, Tape, Explorer 3 | National Air and Space Museum

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Bell company test pilot Jean Leroy "Skip" Ziegler standing in the cockpit of a Bell X-5 on February 19, 1953. | Source: Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Archives

Explorer 1 became America's first satellite on January 31, 1958. Three key Explorer 1 team members triumphantly display a full-scale model of the satellite after its successful launch. From left to right: William H. Pickering, James A. Van Allen, and Wernher von Braun.

Exhibitions | National Air and Space Museum

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Explorer 1 (backup). This satellite was built as a backup-an identical unit for the original Explorer 1. It could have been launched if the first one had failed. Explorer 1 became America's first satellite on January 31, 1958.

Sign of change: The Civil Aeronautics Administration became the Federal Aviation Agency on January 1, 1959. Now the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)