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Submissions from the entire Stream Team -- anything and everything that we find interesting.

Raden Ayu Kartini, (21 April 1879 – 17 September 1904), or sometimes known as Raden Ajeng Kartini, was a prominent Javanese and an Indonesian national heroine. Kartini was a pioneer in the area of women's rights for Indonesians.

Euler diagram of African Organisations

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Muslim Pakistani-American comic book character Kamala Khan is the fourth Ms. Marvel.

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Migration

  • Bradley Farless

    Awdrii, the idea of belonging to a specific group is as old as man. Nationalism is just the modern expression of the idea of tribal affiliation. It is not an infantile disease, regardless of what Einstein's opinion might have been. Political boundaries define cultural, social and economic units and they are put in place by a people to protect that people's interest. People wish to retain cultural and social continuity and want economic stability to prevent the possibility of becoming destitute or starving to death. Modern countries would be grossly subverted by uncontrolled and unwanted immigration. People have a right to protect their interests and livelihood and the idea that it is somehow wrong to want to grow up in a stable country with a stable economy and fairly homogenous culture is perverse and illogical. If "migration" was uncontrolled, people would constantly flock to wealthy areas and destroy the local economies through overpopulation. This isn't the Middle Ages where travel was almost impossible unless one was rich, so don't try to make a comparison to pre-industrial civilizations. It's not the same thing. If you have an issue with the current distribution of wealth in the world, that is a separate issue from immigration law and the right of people to maintain borders.

  • أودري

    Bradley! I'm sorry; I forget that my user handle thing is in Arabic. It's Audrey, but hey what you wrote is pretty good! You weren't far off, from pronunciation at least. Haha :P Do you read Arabic? I would agree greatly with your reply. Where I think we differ is the assumption that modern-day migration should go completely unfettered and unregulated. I agree with your statement "Modern countries would be grossly subverted by uncontrolled and unwanted immigration. People have a right to protect their interests and livelihood and the idea that it is somehow wrong to want to grow up in a stable country with a stable economy and fairly homogenous culture is perverse and illogical." I would argue however that the notions of boundaries and borders, if not permeable, create hard-line political, economic, and religious systems. Moreover, that which keeps one “in” keeps a lot “out.” These kinds of divisions create misinterpretation on linguistic, culture, economic and sociopolitical levels, and can/have resulted in unnecessary displays/acts of aggression. Nationalism is a notion that, if allowed, is a driving force behind both an invasion and protection of a land large and part on a basis of superiority. Notions of sovereignty fueled and dominated by nationalistic ideals creates a great divide between man and his neighbor, when in truth, diplomacy begins with shared notions of existence. To be fair, you got a smartass reply unfairly, as I had just presented a lecture and debate surrounding my philanthropic passion (the Arab-Israeli conflict). The lens which I read this pin was undoubtedly filtered through this topic. In any case, thank you for the intellectually mindful response and of course, for your service.

  • Bradley Farless

    Thanks, regarding the comment on my service. I won't say it was fun, but it was educational in its own way. I got to see Iraq, Kuwait and Qatar, though not under the best of circumstances. It did spark my interest in learning more about the world though, so now I've finished the requirements for a BA in History, am finishing the requirements for a BA in Jewish Studies and have started working on an MA in History, with the courses all more or less revolving around the Middle East. I'm taking a graduate seminar on the Arab-Israeli conflict right now and am actually reading a book about the lead up to the Suez Crisis for this week's class. I took the undergrad course of the same name. I took 3 semesters of Arabic and did ok for most of it, though I started to get lost in the grammar in my third semester. I'm in my second semester of Hebrew now, which is infinitely easier than Arabic, probably because I had that Semitic language foundation to rest on while studying. I'll also be visiting Israel this month for art and archaeology purposes. So, in that context, are you implying there should be free movement between Israel and the West Bank/Gaza? And that Zionist nationalism is inherently racist?

  • أودري

    Hey! You're welcome. :) Thanks for sharing so much of yourself, it quite accurately reflects the intellect found in your reply. As for myself, I hold a BA in PoliSci, an MA in Rhetoric, and I am currently wrapping up my PhD in Rhetoric as well...keep your fingers crossed for me! I have roughly 2 years of Arabic training as well! Visiting the Holy Land sounds like a fantastic experience which I'm sure you'll enjoy. The linguistic immersion in-and-of-itself is reason enough! Best of luck. To address your questions: 1. I think there should have been free movement beginning with and continuing through the British Mandate period. I firmly believe that radicalism, of all forms, is created through the ostracization and marginalization of a people. The methods of land partition and then expansion have fueled anger and resentment on the Palestinian end; while resistance, both violent and non-violent have similarly fueled the same on the other side. Thus present-day Gaza and West Bank exist within a complex and wicked dichotomy to her occupied territories making it such that simply bringing down the separation wall without first developing diplomatic parameters for the peaceful existence of both sides, could be disastrous. Could you imagine dropping the wall and opening the borders under present day conditions?! It would be a bloodbath. At this point, I believe in a two-state solution, along the 1967 Green Lines, along with perhaps and economic union which facilitates quality of live and a fruitful existence in every sense for both sides. 2. No, I don't think Zionist Nationalism is "inherently" racist. People of all creeds have a right to exist. I do not however, any one group holds any inherent right over another. I do not believe "Zionist Nationalism" and "Judaism" to be interchangeable terms, and I believe the former is capable of facilitating notions dangerous notions of exclusion, which has indeed proven to hold true in the occupied territories at least. Operational Zionist Nationalism has been and continues to be utilized as a dangerous tool within the Israeli Nationalist discourse.

  • Bradley Farless

    I just wanted you to know I'm not ignoring your reply. I've just been busy trying to get everything done prior to my trip. Good luck on finishing your PhD. I have a year left yet on my MA and then I'm going to take a break for a while and do something easy like teach for a year or two before getting my PhD. I haven't read anything that indicated there was any lack of freedom of movement during the British mandate period other than that of a lack of financial means, though there were of course areas that became predominantly Jewish through land purchase and eviction of prior tenants and/or squatters. I never really thought about whether or not there was freedom of movement after the 48-49 war, but two things come to mind. There must have been significant freedom of movement until more recent times to warrant the building of a wall to prevent border crossings. Also, once the state of Israel was established, why would Israel be the only state in the world that was legally obligated to not secure its borders? Are you referring to the "right of return" concept? I had the same thought as you at first, about the borders, but I've come to believe that being on the receiving end of the aggression that started the 6 Day War and caused Jordan to lose the West Bank entitles Israel to fair compensation and war damages, and since they have nothing to offer but land, Palestinians should stop pressing for a return to borders that were never anything more than temporary armistice lines in the first place. It is not Israel's responsibility to compensate Palestinians for the failures of their leaders. Believing that Jews will give up Jerusalem, even part of it, after trying to get it back for 2000 years is a pipe dream. If a state emerges in the West Bank (as opposed to the WB falling under Jordanian sovereignty again), Ramallah will likely be the seat of government. I also don't believe Israel should be required to create an economic union with the West Bank as a precondition to a peace agreement, though it would make sense, given how interconnected the two areas are now, and the fact that it would strengthen economic ties with Jordan. Gaza isn't worth mentioning in this context, since Israel unilaterally withdrew from the area and no amount of rockets is going to change the border there. I find it more likely that Gaza and the West Bank will be two states under two governments, rather than one state. Regarding "Zionist Nationalism" in the West Bank, I assume you're referring to settlement activities. I don't even understand how one could rationalize settlement building, even in a Zionist context, since "Next year in Jerusalem" has already become "This year in Jerusalem". Pushing further into the West Bank jeopardizes Israel's security.

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