A nurse at St. Elizabeths Hospital for the mentally ill in Washington, D.C., monitors patients in continuously flowing baths which were supposed to have a soothing effect on the nerves. Cold packs can also be seen on the heads of patients. Hydrotherapy was one of the innovations at St. Elizabeths which began using it in 1897. (photo c. 1950)
Le Rafle (The Round Up) Early in the morning of July 16, 1942, the French police arrested over 13,000 Jews including 4,000 children and detained them at the Vélodrome. Kept under horrendous, unsanitary conditions for days, they were then shipped to the transit camp at Drancy and on to Auschwitz. Almost all of them died.... About 76,000 Jews were deported from France between 1940 and 1944. Only 2,500 are believed to have survived the death and concentration camps. No children survived.
Jane Bielawski and her doll 'Missy'. Following the suspicious deaths of some of her playmates in a New York tenement, police attempted to interview Jane. According to reports, the young girl went 'crazy' and accused her doll of the murders, before throwing the doll out of her apartment window while screaming, "Bad dolly! Naughty dolly!" Jane was taken to Bloomingdale Asylum to be treated for 'hysteria'. She was never to leave the institution, dying there an old woman in 1968.
The History Place - Child Labor in America 1908-12: Lewis Hine Photos - Miners. View of the Ewen Breaker of the Pennsylvania Coal Co. The dust was so dense at times as to obscure the view. This dust penetrated the utmost recesses of the boys' lungs. A kind of slave-driver sometimes stands over the boys, prodding or kicking them into obedience. South Pittston, Pennsylvania.
Inside 1945 Buchenwald with LIFE: " German civilians are forced by American troops to bear witness to Nazi atrocities at Buchenwald concentration camp, mere miles from their own homes, April 1945."