The Sumerian Stele of the Vultures commemorates Lagash's victory against the neighboring city of Umma. Their dispute was over Guedena, the fertile fields between them. In c. 2450 BCE, relations soured after a border dispute. Lagash king Eannatum, inspired by Lagash patron god Ningirsu, set out with his army to defeat them. When they met, Eannatum dismounted from his chariot and led his men on foot in a dense phalanx. This is one of the earliest known organized battles.
Vulture Stele Translation
Nimrud -Head of a roaring lion, Neo-Assyrian, ca 9th–8th c. BC. Mesopotamia, ancient Kalhu
Nineveh: The White Obelisk, Assyrian ca1050BC. The inscription names Ashurnasirpal (probably Ashurnasirpal I - 1049-1031BC. He is shown in his chariot, fighting, hunting and taking part in ritual scenes
Sumer: the Ziggurat of Enlil at Nippur, 3rd millennium BCE. Situated 150 kilometers southeast of Baghdad in Iraq, Nippur was centrally placed and as the center of a city-state it played a special role in the life of Sumer as a religious city and centre of the worship of the deity Enlil.
Property of the Mesopotamian Moon God This alabaster goblet from Ur bears a simple inscription in Sumerian cuneiform that reads, “Property of Nanna”. Nanna was the Sumerian name of the moon god (Akkadian “Sîn”), the titular deity of the city of Ur whose name appears in the second line in each photo above. The greatest number of references to and indications of the worship of the moon god come from the Third Dynasty of Ur. (Source) Ur, probably c. 2100-2000.
Eridu Excavations. Eridu is an ancient Sumerian city in what is now Tell Abu Shahrain, Iraq. It was long considered the earliest city in S Mesopotamia, and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world. Located about 7.5-mi SW of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of cities that grew about temples. Eridu was founded ca 5400 BC, close to the Persian Gulf near the mouth of the Euphrates River
1800-1600 BCE. Old Babylonian Mastiff Mesopotamia; relief plaque shows a dog with open mouth, large jowls and a raised tail. Related to the modern breed of mastiffs, the dog wears a collar and walks to the right. This is the sacred animal of Gula, goddess of healing.
CALIFORNIA MUSEUM OF ANCIENT ART - LOS ANGELES, CA
Stone frog, ca. 2,000-1,600 BCE, with Akkadian inscription that indicates it is a unit of weight equal to 10 'minas,' the Mesopotamian unit of measure, weighing about 500 grams (18 ounces). The weight system was based on the talent or the average load that could be carried by a man or animal (about 30 kilograms). According to the Sumerian sexagesimal system, the talent was divided into 60 minas, and a mina was divided into 60 shekels.
Eridu is an ancient Sumerian city which was long considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia, and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world.Eridu,could mean "mighty place" or "guidance place". In the Sumerian king list, Eridu is named as the city of the first kings.The king list continues:In Eridu, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years.In Sumerian mythology, Eridu was the home of the Abzu temple of the deity Enki.
Votive cudgel,decorated with an animal-drawn chariot. Sumerian pre-Sargonic, from Luristan, 2500-2400 BCE. Period of Archaic Dynasties. Bronze, L:13,4 cm AO 24 792 Louvre, Departement des Antiquites Orientales, Paris, France
Kudurru del rey Meli-Shipak II (Babilonia Cassita, S.XIV a.C. París, Museo del Louvre). En el S.XII fue llevada a Susa como botín de guerra. Sus relieves se dividen en 5 registros ordenados donde se representaron los símbolos de 24 divinidades astrales. En la franja superior el creciente lunar que representa a Sin, dios de la luna, la estrella de Venus como a Ishtar, y el disco solar del dios Shamash entre otros.
Ebla was an ancient city about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Aleppo. It was an important city-state in two periods, first in the late third millennium BC, then again between 1800 and 1650 BC. The site is most famous for the Ebla tablets, an archive of about 20,000 cuneiform tablets found there, dated from around 2250 BC, written in Sumerian script to record the Eblaite language — a previously unknown language that is now the earliest attested Semitic language after the closely related Akkadian.