Kelet - Oriental World
Mythical peacock with a woman's head, Indian miniature panting.
Mosque lamp, first quarter of 16th century; Ottoman Anatolia (Iznik) Composite body, opaque white glaze, underglaze painted. Earthenware ceramics were made in Iznik as early as the second half of the fourteenth century, but it was not until about one hundred years later that this center began to manufacture pottery with a composite body. The earliest composite-bodied ware made in Iznik was distinguished by an underglaze-painted blue decoration on a white ground. Among the principal characteristics of this ware, known as Abraham of Kutahya (after the artist whose signature appeared on only one piece), are ornately contoured panels with small, highly detailed vegetal patterns. A variant of the Abraham of Kutahya type, represented by this small mosque lamp, is characterized by a ground completely covered with delicate spiraling stems bearing small flowers. This motif serves as a backdrop for two beautifully executed Arabic inscriptions: "Power belongs to God, the One" (repeated three times on the body of the object) and (on the flaring upper section) "there is no hero except cAli; no sword except dhu-l-faqar [cAli's sword]." During this period in Turkey, pottery continued to imitate metalwork in shape as well as in design. This lamp, however, is one of a number made at this time that have a glass prototype.
Khusrau Hunting: Page from a manuscript of the Khusrau and Shirin of Hatifi, dated 1498; Ottoman Turkey (probably Istanbul). The Persian poet Hatifi (died 1521), nephew of the fifteenth-century Herat poet Jami, wrote a Khamsa (Quintet), like other ambitious poets, in emulation of the great Nizami. Persian literature and culture were much admired at the Ottoman court, and Persian was considered the prime language for poetry. This manuscript of Khusrau and Shirin, one of the books of the Khamsa, was transcribed in Persian during the author's lifetime. This painting, one of seven in the manuscript, shows the Iranian prince Khusrau hunting with his companions. Ottoman painting during the reign of Bayezid II (r. 1481–1512), who was a great patron of the arts, was still in a formative state, with influences coming from both East and West. In this case, the style derives basically from the Turkman style of southern Iran, as seen in such conventions as the organization of spatial planes and the distinctive rendition of vegetation in the first two phases. But the liveliness of the figures and variety of flying birds hint at the interest in realism that would become a hallmark of Turkish painting in the sixteenth century.
In 1900 Zaixun Prince Zhuang of the First Rank (莊親王 strongly advocated making use of the Righteous and Harmonious Society (or "Boxers") to counter foreign aggression. Zaixun and Gangyi (剛毅) were placed in command of Boxer groups to fight the foreigners. Zaixun had an altar set up in his residence, while he personally donned garments similar to that of the Boxers. Not long later he was appointed as Nine Gates Infantry Commander, and he gave out rewards for the capture and killing of foreigners.
TURKISH VELVET COAT with GOLD EMBROIDERY, LATE 19th-EARLY 20th C. Purple velvet with wide lapel, flared skirt and small faux back belt detail, lavishly decorated with padded vining floral embroidery and sequins, lined in mauve cotton twill.