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Cultures of Yesterday

Chief White Bull: 1849 – 1947. He was the nephew of Sitting Bull and participated in the Battle of the Little Big Horn. Some believe he killed Custer. Prior to becoming a combatant against Custer, White Bull was already an accomplished fighter. He had taken part in at least 20 battles, against the US Army and other tribes. White Bull was shot on two occasions, in addition to other injuries received in battle, he also underwent the torturous Sun Dance more than once.

David Humphreys Miller sketching "One Bull" Sitting Bull's Adoptive Son. Sitting Bull adopted "One Bull at the Age of Three after one of his son's died"

Toos-day-zay, Chiricahua Apache woman, wife of Cochise, and mother of Chief Natches (Nai-chi-ti, Natchez) Photo taken 1884.

Rare photo of Washakie. He led the Shoshone scouts under Gen. Crook at the Battle of the Rosebud, personally saving the life of Capt. Guy Henry in the middle of the battle. He was almost 80 at the time.

Papers-etc Betsy Thunder, HoChunk medicine woman, Wisconsin, 1913. From a wonderful book Women's Wisconsin, which talks about female farmers, chiefs, medicine women, etc. In the 1700s the primary chief was a woman, Hopoekaw, who guided the HoChunk through the French colonization of Wisconsin and the later American intrusion. American souces describe her as a "queen" or as a "distinguished" woman, "very ancient," and "invested with the supreme authority." Suppressed Histories Archives

* Hollow Horn Bear ~Tribe: Brule Dakota Born in Sheridan Country, Nebraska, son of Chief Iron Shell, Hollow Horn Bear earned his early fame as a warrior. He fought with the leading chiefs of the Plains against subjugation until the 1870s; after that, he favored peace with the whites. His likeness appeared on a fourteen-cent stamp as well as on a five-dollar bill ~ Artist by: steeelll *

Tearing Lodge and Wife ~ Piegan indians.