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Bioscience and Biotechnology

Over the last 50 years, scientists and engineers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory had major influence in a variety of biological fields. This photo set aims to provide a historical overview of the work and achievements made since 1963. Read more: http://1.usa.gov/1h0Ae9G

The first FDA-approved artificial retina has been named the 2013 Innovation of the year by PopSci and one of the 25 inventions of the year by Time magazine. Our role developing the artificial retina: 1.usa.gov/1auQJF9. Our neural implant technologies: neurotech.llnl.gov.

The first biomedical and environmental research program began at Livermore in 1963. John Gofman, a distinguished professor at the University of California at Berkeley, was recruited to set up the program and given the charge of studying the effects of radiation on humans. Mort Mendelsohn was recruited to lead the program after Gofman's departure in 1969 to return to teaching.

A new class of neural implants being developed at the Livermore Lab are the first clinical quality devices capable of two-way conversations with the human nervous systems. Unlike existing interfaces that only sense or only stimulate, these devices are capable of stimulating and sensing using both electric and chemical signals.

A new class of neural implants being developed at the Livermore Lab are the first clinical quality devices capable of two-way conversations with the human nervous systems. Unlike existing interfaces that only sense or only stimulate, these devices are capable of stimulating and sensing using both electric and chemical signals.

Faster analysis from biological accelerator mass spectrometry: Avi Thomas works with a biological accelerator mass spectrometry (bioAMS) instrument at Livermore. The system includes a high-performance liquid chromatograph and a moving-wire interface, which allow researchers to directly study liquid samples. Read more: 1.usa.gov/18CF2ba

As part of a three-day demonstration exercise, California National Guard civil support personnel in full chemical protective gear demonstrate rapid-response operations. Personnel trained in chemical response procedures and technologies (left) drive by a portable personal decontamination facility and (right) sample air for chemical warfare agents.

Analytical chemists (from left) Carolyn Koester and Heather Mulcahy work in an environmental reference laboratory at the Forensic Science Center to develop and validate sensitive methods for analyzing chemical warfare agents.

In February 2001, the international science community celebrated completion of the first draft of the human genome. Researchers announced in 2000 they had decoded in draft form the genetic information of human chromosomes 5, 16, and 19. The chromosomes contain 10,000 to 15, 000 genes, whose defects may lead to diseases such as diabetes, leukemia, and atherosclerosis. In this photo, Livermore researcher Tijana Glavina removes a plate of purified DNA from a plate washer.

In the 1970s, Livermore was the first to use flow cytometry to sort chromosomes. By the end of the decade, researchers could sort human chromosomes, which are small and varied. The capabilities in flow cytometry developed at Livermore, combined with worldwide developments in recombinant DNA technology, led in the 1980s to a Livermore–Los Alamos project to build human chromosome-specific DNA libraries and then to the Human Genome Project.

Crystal Jaing, Group Leader of Bio’s Applied Genomics Group, prepares a Microbial Detection Array slide, the primary detection technology used in an international study of bladder cancer samples.

Livermore Lab researcher Vanessa Tolosa will fabricate neural interfaces on this finished silicon wafer, polymer devices designed to bypass damaged nerves and neurons in humans. The devices are being engineered to restore sight, hearing, speech and even reanimate limbs. In fact, one such device is the first ever FDA-approved retinal prosthesis. Neural implants come of age: buff.ly/153HWem Retinal prosthesis LLNL helped develop is approved by the FDA: buff.ly/13LIOmZ