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Double-Sided Pendant Icon with the Virgin and Christ Pantokrator Date: ca. 1100 Geography: Made in, Constantinople Culture: Byzantine Medium: Gold, cloisonné enamel Dimensions: Overall: 1 5/16 x 15/16 x 1/16in. (3.3 x 2.4 x 0.2cm) Thickness: 1/16 x 1 5/16in. (0.2 x 3.3cm) Accession Number: 1994.403 The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The 'milk-giver' icon ... On July 3, the Icon of the Virgin “Galaktotrophousa” (Γαλακτοτροφουσα, meaning “the Milk-Giver”) is celebrated. The Icon shows the Mother of God breast-feeding Christ. Not many modern icons use this composition, which may hide just how ancient and widespread this icon really is. The specific Icon celebrated on July 3 (and January 12) dates from the 6th century A.D. ...

In the fifth century Attila attacked Paris. The men intended to defend Lutetia, the island on which the Notre Dame cathedral today stands. But at the sight of Attila’s hordes they lost spirit. A young woman, the thirty-year-old Genovefa approached them and declared: “Do not be afraid, but turn to fasting and prayer, and ask God to be saved!” Though they laughed at her, she again admonished them: “Call upon our Heavenly Father, take hold of the arms of prayer and fasting. I predict to you that by doing so, you and your families will be saved.” She was a nun, born in Nanterre. From Nanterre she often went through the woods to the city of Saint-Denis, where the relics of St. Dionysius reposed, and so is often portrayed with the candle that lit her path. The men unexpectedly heeded her appeal. And indeed Attila’s troops, which advanced in two columns, joined up in front of Paris, but for unknown reasons they went around the city.

31 dec 11. St Ephraim of Nea Makri ... considered a patron for drug addicts, suicides and those in despair or frightened.