Nalbinding Socks: Methods of Construction Viking method for making socks, hats, mittens Norse socks were made using an ancient technique called nálbinding (needle-binding). Using a single large, thick needle, it was a method of knotting the yarn. Although time consuming, this approach resulted in a nearly indestructible garment. If the thread were to break or wear out, the garment would still be intact, since the thread was everywhere knotted to neighboring threads.
Diagram for three types of sock construction by Anne Neumann. Top: finger heel. Center: circle heel. Bottom: turned heel. The red dots on the socks show where there is a risk of a hole. The finger heel is more complicated but usually provides a better fit.
dandelion knitting stitch