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Roman grave stone in Bonn Museum: "To Marcus Caelius, son of Titus, of the Lemonian voting tribe, from Bologna, a centurion in the First Order of legio XVIII, aged 53; He fell in the Varian War. His bones - if found - may be placed in this monument. Publius Caelius, son of Titus, of the Lemonian voting tribe, his brother, set this up." This centurio had several military decorations like torques and phalerae proudly displayed on his breast armour.
DONA SUPRA STELAS Like many other aspects of ancient life, even in the case of military decorations we have to rely on the steles and funerary reliefs in stone and clay to get to know some details and aspects of objects whose remains have come down to us only in a few rare specimens. !st century BC.
The Berlin Golden Hat is a tall, conical artifact made of hammered gold and decorated with astronomic symbols including the moon almost 3000 years old. It dates back to 1000-800 BC and may have been used as the ceremonial hat of a high priest or ruler used when worshipping the sun. It is possible that the Berliner Gold Hat was also used as a calendar: the symbols on the artefact would have permitted the determination of dates or periods in both lunar and solar calendars. (repin)
The tombstone of a centurion, Colchester Castle Museum, Camulodunum (Roman Colchester) Here is Marcus Favonius Facilis, a Roman army officer of Legion XX. MARCUS FAVONIUS FACILIS SON OF MARCUS OF THE POLLIAN TRIBE CENTURION OF THE TWENTIETH LEGION VERECUNDUD AND NOVICIUS HIS FREEDMEN SET UP THIS HERE HE LIES Foto: carolemadge1