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One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928 - Matthew J. Mancini - Google Books. Convict leasing was a system of penal labor practiced in the Southern United States, beginning with the emancipation of slaves at the end of the American Civil War in 1865, peaking around 1880, and officially ending in the last state, Alabama, in 1928. It persisted in various forms until World War II.
Colonial soldier with German women, 1919. In the period following World War I, French colonial troops were used as part of the Allied occupation of the German Rhineland, in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles. Germ Hitler wrote about the Black Shame in Mein Kampf, decrying the "negrification" of Europe. His government would later sterilize 500 or so mixed-race children born of African servicemen and German women (the so-called Rhineland Bastards"),
JOHN HOPE (1st Black president of Morehouse College in Atlanta, was affiliated with Spelman and Atlanta University under his leadership, was a founder of the Niagara Movement, served as YMCA secretary working with black solders in France during and after World War I, member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, his wife founded the Neighborhood Union outreach program in Atlanta)
"Rhineland Bastard" was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe Afro-German children of mixed German and African parentage, who were fathered by Africans serving as French colonial troops occupying the Rhineland after World War I. Under Nazism's racial theories, these children were considered inferior to "pure Aryans" and consigned to compulsory sterilization.