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One Dies, Get Another: Convict Leasing in the American South, 1866-1928 - Matthew J. Mancini - Google Books. Convict leasing was a system of penal labor practiced in the Southern United States, beginning with the emancipation of slaves at the end of the American Civil War in 1865, peaking around 1880, and officially ending in the last state, Alabama, in 1928. It persisted in various forms until World War II.
Hugh Mulzac, the first African American ship commander, was born on March 26, 1886 in the British West Indies's Union Island in Saint Vincent Grenadines. He earned a mate's license from Swansea Nautical College in Great Britain and reached the rank of mate. During World War I Mulzac served as a ship's officer on British and American ships. In 1918 Mulzac immigrated to the United States,
Colonial soldier with German women, 1919. In the period following World War I, French colonial troops were used as part of the Allied occupation of the German Rhineland, in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles. Germ Hitler wrote about the Black Shame in Mein Kampf, decrying the "negrification" of Europe. His government would later sterilize 500 or so mixed-race children born of African servicemen and German women (the so-called Rhineland Bastards"),
Biochemist Florence Barbara Seibert (1897-1991) developed the skin test for tuberculosis. After graduating from Goucher College, she worked as a chemist during World War I and then went to Yale University, where she earned a Ph.D. and made important discoveries about the ability of some bacteria to survive distillation techniques and therefore contaminate intravenous injections. During the 1930s, she taught at University of Pennsylvania and developed the tuberculosis skin reaction test,
JOHN HOPE (1st Black president of Morehouse College in Atlanta, was affiliated with Spelman and Atlanta University under his leadership, was a founder of the Niagara Movement, served as YMCA secretary working with black solders in France during and after World War I, member of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity, his wife founded the Neighborhood Union outreach program in Atlanta)
"Rhineland Bastard" was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe Afro-German children of mixed German and African parentage, who were fathered by Africans serving as French colonial troops occupying the Rhineland after World War I. Under Nazism's racial theories, these children were considered inferior to "pure Aryans" and consigned to compulsory sterilization.
Eugene Jacques Bullard Born in Columbus, Georgia, in 1894, stowed away to Europe as a teenager, earning money as a prizefighter and interpreter. When World War I erupted he joined the French army and ultimately became the world’s first black fighter pilot. He later married the daughter of a French countess, opened a nightclub in Paris and hobnobbed with the likes of Josephine Baker, Louis Armstrong and Ernest Hemingway.