Elizebeth Smith Friedman was a cryptanalyst and author, and a pioneer in U.S. cryptography. She has been dubbed "America's first female cryptanalyst". Although she is often referred to as the wife of William F. Friedman, a notable cryptographer credited with numerous contributions to cryptology, she enjoyed many successes in her own right, and it was Elizebeth who first introduced her husband to the field.
Amalie Emmy Noether (23 March 1882 – 14 April 1935), was an influential German mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. Described by Pavel Alexandrov, Albert Einstein, Jean Dieudonné, Hermann Weyl, Norbert Wiener and others as the most important woman in the history of mathematics, she revolutionized the theories of rings, fields, and algebras. Her theorem explains the fundamental connection between symmetry and conservation laws.
A forgotten profession: In the days before alarm clocks were widely affordable, people like Mary Smith of Brenton Street were employed to rouse sleeping people in the early hours of the morning. They were commonly known as ‘knocker-ups’ or ‘knocker-uppers’. Mrs. Smith was paid sixpence a week to shoot dried peas at market workers’ windows in Limehouse Fields, London. Photograph from Philip Davies’ Lost London: 1870-1945.
Bert Williams. You wouldn't know it to look at this picture, but Williams was one of the first, wealthiest and most famous black comedians of his day. Booker T. Washington wrote of Williams: "He has done more for our race than I have. He has smiled his way into people's hearts; I have been obliged to fight my way." And WC Fields said of him, "the funniest man I ever saw – and the saddest man I ever knew."
Helen Brooke Taussig (1898-1986) was an American cardiologist, working in Baltimore and Boston, who founded the field of pediatric cardiology. Notably, she is credited with developing the concept for a procedure that would extend the lives of children born with Tetrology of Fallot (also known as blue baby syndrome). This concept was applied in practice as a procedure known as the Blalock-Taussig shunt.
Clarissa Field of Northfield, Massachusetts, was born blind in 1765. This doll was made for her and she fancifully named it Bangwell Putt. Bangwell lacks facial features but her ten carefully constructed fingers suggest the importance of touch in Clarissa's world. Bangwell has a homespun body and is dressed in 18th century fashion, including corset. Clarissa kept Bangwell until she died in her eighties. Bangwell Putt is thought to be the oldest surviving rag doll in North America. 15.25in tall
Mary Fields, aka Stagecoach Mary, put the wild in the Wild West. During the late 1800s, she was reportedly one of the toughest characters in the Northern Rockies of Montana. A crack shot, the 6-foot-2-inch, 200-pound Fields wore a .38 Smith & Wesson strapped under her apron. She drove the U.S. mail route between St. Peter's Mission and the town of Cascade, Mont., for eight years -- by stagecoach -- dressed in a man's hat and coat.
Hedy Lamarr is said to have tipped the balance of WWII. Not only is she almost unbelievably beautiful, she was also exceedingly clever. She was the co-inventor of an early wireless form of communication; her invention allowed shortwave radio communications on the field. She gave the invention, for no compensation, to the US Government. the Germans did not yet have this capability. Hooray for Hollywood leading lady Hedy Lamarr.