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Central pontine myelinolysis or CPM for short is a neurological disease caused by severe damage of the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the brainstem, more precisely in the area termed the pons, predominately of iatrogenic etiology. It is characterized by acute paralysis, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), and dysarthria (difficulty speaking), and other neurological symptoms. Can occur from 3%NaCl IV after hypovolemic shock.
A Meckel's diverticulum, a true congenital diverticulum, is a small bulge in the small intestine present at birth. It is a vestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct (also called the vitelline duct or yolk stalk), and is the most frequent malformation of the gastrointestinal tract. It is present in approximately 2% of the population, with males more frequently experiencing symptoms.
Trousseau sign of latent tetany is a medical sign observed in patients with low calcium. This sign may become positive before other gross manifestations of hypocalcemia such as hyperreflexia and tetany, as such it is generally believed to be more sensitive (94%) than the Chvostek sign (29%) for hypocalcemia.
The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or PCWP (also called the pulmonary wedge pressure or PWP, or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or PAOP) is the pressure measured by wedging a pulmonary catheter with an inflated balloon into a small pulmonary arterial branch.
A Colles' fracture, also Colles fracture, is a fracture of the distal radius in the forearm with dorsal (posterior) displacement of the wrist and hand. The fracture is sometimes referred to as a "dinner fork" or "bayonet" deformity due to the shape of the resultant forearm.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (abbreviated FH, also spelled familial hypercholesterolaemia) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), also called a sedimentation rate or Westergren ESR, is the rate at which RBCs sediment in 1 hour. It measures inflammation. Anticoagulated blood is placed in a Westergren tube, & the rate at which the RBCs fall is reported in mm/h. The ESR is governed by fibrinogen & the zeta potential (the negative RBCs charge, ζ). In inflammation, fibrinogen causes RBCs to stick to each other & form Rouleaux formations which settle faster. ζ resists sedimentation.