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Robert Liston (28 October 1794 – 7 December 1847) was a pioneering Scottish surgeon, and the son of the Scottish minister and inventor Henry Liston, whose father was also a Robert Liston, Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Liston was noted for his skill and speed in an era prior to anaesthetics, when speed made a difference in terms of pain and survival.
Sir James Young Simpson, 1st Baronet (7 June 1811 – 6 May 1870) was a Scottish and an important figure in the history of medicine. Simpson discovered the anaesthetic properties of chloroform and successfully introduced it for general medical use.