In 1959, Ella Fitzgerald was the first black woman to win a Grammy. During her career she recorded more than 250 albums and won 13 Grammys. She also won the Kennedy Center Honor, the National Medal of the Arts, and the American Black Achievement Award.
Dr. Ben Carson, MD, pediatric neurosurgeon, and the Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. He made medical history by being the 1st surgeon to successfully separate conjoined twins joined at the back of the head. His other innovations include the 1st intrauterine procedure and a hemispherectomy. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the US, and received 61 honorary doctorate degrees.
Frederick Fritz Pollard Frederick Douglass "Fritz" Pollard (January 27, 1894 – May 11, 1986) was the first African American head coach in the National Football League (NFL). Pollard along with Bobby Marshall were the first two African American players in the NFL in 1920.
Minnie Brown, taken at White Studios, NY, 1907 From the link: “She was an actress and singer. And also a member of the Williams Walker Vaudevillian troupe. In 1920 she served as vice president for the National Association of Negro Musicians.”
A complaint against segregated schools in Clarendon County, South Carolina, charges that denying admittance to African American students on the basis of race violates their guarantee of equal protection under the 14th Amendment. "Complaint against Segregated South Carolina Schools, 1950 (page 1 of 4) by the U.S. National Archives, via Flickr.