Giotto di Bondone, Madonna Enthroned, from the Church of Ognissanti, Florence, Italy, ca. 1310. Tempura and gold leaf on wood, 10'-8" x 6'-8". Giotto displaced the Byzantine style in Italian painting and revived the naturalism of classical art. His figures have substance, dimensionally, and bulk and give the illusion that they could have thrown shadows.
Cappella degli Scrovegni, also known as the Arena Chapel, is a church in Padua, Veneto, Italy. It contains a fresco cycle by Giotto, completed about 1305,
Duccio di Buoninsegna, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints, principal panel of the Maestà altarpiece, from Siena Cathedral, Siena, Italy, 1308-1311. Tempera and gold leaf on wood, 7' x 13' (center panel). Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Siena.