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'The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries' (1812) by court- favored French artist, Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825). Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) was a French military & political leader from Corsica who rose to prominence during the latter stages of the French Revolution. He was Emperor of France from 1804-1815. The French empire under Napoleon staged a series of conflicts - the Napoleonic Wars - involving every major European power.
François-Marie Arouet de Voltaire - A French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit and for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, freedom of expression, free trade and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform.
Simone de Beauvoir, Paris 1946. Simone de Beauvoir, 9 January 1908 – 14 April 1986), was a French existentialist philosopher, public intellectual, political activist, feminist theorist and social theorist. She did not consider herself a philosopher but her significant contributions to existentialism and feminist existentialism have solidified her legacy as a philosopher and feminist.