A particularly interesting artifact from the Solomon Temple reign of King Uzziah of Judah, c. 750 BC, is a small ivory pomegranate - vase shaped with a long neck and petals. Around its shoulder, in an early Hebrew script, is inscribed "Sacred donation for the priests of the House of the Lord ". Like the Temple Ostracon and the David Tablet, this item is also held at the Israel Museum.
The Gezer Calendar (Circa 950 BCE): A tablet of soft limestone inscribed in a paleo-Hebrew script, the Gezer Calendar is one of the oldest known examples of Hebrew writing, dating to the 10th century BCE. It was discovered in excavations of the Biblical city of Gezer, 30 miles northwest of Jerusalem, by R.A.S. Macalister in his excavations between 1902 and 1907, and it is preserved in the Museum of the Ancient Orient in Istanbul. "The calendar describes monthly or bi-monthly...
Nabataean writing. The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra, Jordan. The alphabet is descended from the Aramaic alphabet via the Syriac alphabet. A cursive form of it in turn developed into the Arabic alphabet from the 4th century, which is why its letterforms are intermediate between the more northerly Semitic scripts such as the Arabic.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 EME.ĜIR15 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, which was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from at least the 4th millennium BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.