Sinking of the White Ship in 1120 off Barlfleur on the Normandy coast drowned William Adelin, only legitimate son of Henry I, and brought 20 years of civil war to England between Maud (Matilda), daughter of the king, and Stephen of Blois, the King's nephew. The period was known as The Anarchy (1135-1153), resolved by the accession to the throne of Maud's son by Count Geoffrey of Anjou: Henry II, the first Plantagenet.
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Empress Matilda was the sole surviving heir of King Henry I. Matilda married Henry V Holy Roman Emperor but had no children & after eleven years of marriage Henry died. She then married Geoffrey V Count of Anjou. They had three sons, the eldest of whom eventually became King Henry II. Upon the death of her father in 1135 the throne was usurped by her cousin Stephen of Blois who claimed the throne whilst Matilda was in Normandy pregnant with her third child.
Henry I Beauclerc (c. 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of King William I the Conqueror of England and Matila of Flanders. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106 ... 26th GGF. Ancestor
William the Conqueror's eldest son, Robert, was a challenging child. He feuded on and off with his father and his younger brothers, who became William II and Henry I. When William I was dying, he decided to divide his kingdom into two parts, presumably because he didn't want to leave everything to Robert. Robert got Normandy, and became Duke Robert II. William Rufus got England, and became William II.
Henry I, King of England - The fourth son of William the Conqueror, Henry succeeded his elder brother William II as King in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He married Princess Matilda of Scotland to unite the Normans and Saxons.
Robert Curthose (1054 - 1134). Eldest son of William I and Matilda of Flanders. Robert and his father did not get along leading William to want to disinherit Robert. He gave Robert the Duchy of Normandy and gave England to his second son, William Rufus. Robert launched a failed rebellion against his brother in 1088. When William II died his younger brother Henry I seized the throne, and Robert tried to invade again in 1101. In 1106 Henry took over Normandy from Robert.
Historic Photographs Of "White" Slaves - Historic photos of "white" slaves from Occupied Louisiana, 1863 and 1864: These children were minority African Mulattoes and most states considered them legally Black for having 1/8th or more African ancestry. As a side note, Sally Hemings was 1/4th African so she and her and Thomas Jefferson's children would have had similar appearance. Racial intermingling, both consensual and non, was much more common in the pre-war South than many tend to believe.