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Vivien T. Thomas. In 1944, Hopkins' surgery chief, Alfred Blalock, successfully operated on the heart of a 9-pound child, a "blue baby." Medical experts believed cardiac surgery was impossible. As Blalock prepared to make his historic incision, he looked around the operating room and asked, "Where's Vivien?" Blalock would not begin until Thomas, stationed on a stool behind his right shoulder, was there to guide Blalock through procedures. Prejudice long kept Thomas' crucial role unacknowledged.
The nurses behind the Nazi 'Super Race Children': Inside the Aryan breeding wards where boys and girls were given UV treatment if their hair turned brown
1913 - After parcel post service was introduced in 1913, at least two children were sent by the service. With stamps attached to their clothing, the children rode with railway and city carriers to their destination. The Postmaster General quickly issued a regulation forbidding the sending of children in the mail after hearing of those examples.