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Earliest known example of Turkic writing found in Kyzyl, early 8th century. The origins of the Turkic scripts are uncertain. The initial guesses were based on visual, external resemblances of the Turkic runiform letters with the Gothic runes or with Greek, Etruscan and Anatolian letters, suggesting an Indo-European Alphabet resembling Semitic Phoenician, Gothic, Phoenician-based Greek, etc. letters. Mainstream opinion derives the Orkhon script from variants of the Aramaic alphabet, in particular via the Pahlavi and Sogdian alphabets. By 9th century, the Orkhon alphabets were replaced by the Uyghur alphabet developed from the cursive version of the Sogdian script.
Etruscan Alphabet. The first alphabet was invented by Semitic-speakers in the ancient Near East, though the Caananite and later Phoenician alphabets had only consonants, and no vowels. The Greeks derived their alphabet from the Phoenicians and added vowels, producing the first true alphabet. A western variety of the Greek alphabet was carried by the Euboean Greeks to Italy, and the Etruscans acquired the alphabet from them. The Etruscans in turn passed on the alphabet to the Romans.
Little is known about the origins of the Runic alphabet, which is traditionally known as futhark after the first six letters. In Old Norse the word rune means 'letter', 'text' or 'inscription'. The word also means 'mystery' or 'secret' in Old Germanic languages and runes had a important role in ritual and magic.
Aramaic is a N.W. Semitic language. The alphabet was based on the Phoenician alphabet. Ancient Israelites and other Canaanites adopted the alphabet for writing their own languages. Another form of Aramaic was developed by Christians: a cursive form known as the Syriac alphabet. One variety, Serto is shown here. 11th C. Syriac Sertâ book script from the Monastery of St Catherine, Mt Sinai. Egypt.
Nabataean writing. The Nabataean alphabet is a consonantal alphabet (abjad) that was used by the Nabataeans in the 2nd century BC. Important inscriptions are found in Petra, Jordan. The alphabet is descended from the Aramaic alphabet via the Syriac alphabet. A cursive form of it in turn developed into the Arabic alphabet from the 4th century, which is why its letterforms are intermediate between the more northerly Semitic scripts such as the Arabic.
Ancient alphabets: Kemetc, Semetic, Phoenician, Greek, Roman. The Greek alphabet, the script of English today, is based on the Kemetic alphabet of Ancient Egypt/Kemet and the Upper Nile Valley of Ancient Africa. Ancient Egyptians called their words MDW NTR, or ‘Metu Neter,” which means divine speech. The Greeks called it, ‘hieroglyphics"- a Greek word. The etymology of hieroglyphics is sacred (hieros) carvings (glyph).
Norse Runes: Futhark Runic Alphabet - uthark is the name given to a group of runic alphabets. Norse runes were letters used in ancient Germanic languages before the Roman script was adopted. Futhark was used for a long period of time by various peoples to write various languages. Its earlier version is known as the Elder Futhark. Later variant is known as the Younger Futhark. The word Futhark is formed after the first six runes in the rune sequence. Learn more. #languages