CINQUE TERRE, Italy: is a very jagged, steep coastline, which the work of humans over the millennia has transformed into an intensively terraced landscape so as to be able to wrest from nature a few hectares of land suitable for agriculture, such as growing vines and olive trees. The cultivation terraces that typify much of the Cinque Terre landscape were mainly built in the 12th century.
STUDENICA MONASTERY, Serbia: was established in the late 12th century by Stefan Nemanja, founder of the medieval Serb state, shortly after his abdication. It is where Saint Sava Nemanjic, youngest heir of Stefan Nemanja, wrote the first literary work in the Serbian language.
The world's oldest complete scroll of the Torah containing the full text of the first five books of scripture. Experts and carbon dating tests done in Italy and United States put the scroll as having been written between 1155 and 1255. Identified by Professor of Hebrew, Mauro Perani, at the University of Bologna, Italy, May 2013.
1100-1300- During the Pueblo Golden Age, the Pueblo people build cliff dwellings containing as many as 200 rooms in a complex. The move to the cliffs may be for protection from other tribes or it may be to get closer to the springs that develop at cliff bases. During a period of drought around 1300, the Pueblo will abandon their cliff dwellings, probably moving west.
Virgin and Child in Majesty, 1150–1200 French; Made in Auvergne Walnut with paint, gesso, and linen This type of sculpture, with the Christ Child seated in the Virgin's lap in a frontal pose, is known as a Sedes Sapientiae (Throne of Wisdom). These seemingly straightforward images convey complex theological ideas. Mary serves as Christ's throne.
In 1180, the city of Hangzhou, China, became the World's largest with 200,000 people. It profited from its shipping location on Hangzhou Bay- the name Hangzhou means "River-ferrying Prefecture". The Grand Canal of China, the World's largest canal, was built between Beijing and Hangzhou in the 7th century. The Wuyue Kingdom used the city as its capital & built several Buddhist temples in the 10th century. The city eventually became even more renowned for the scenic beauty of its West Lake.
In 1170, when China was in a period of civil war, far-off Fes, Morocco, may have become the World's largest city with a population of just two hundred thousand. The city had grown considerably when Arabs fleeing revolution in Arabia settled in the 9th century. Today Fes is the second-largest city in Morocco, with a population of about one million. Its old city, protected as the world's largest car-free urban area, is a World Heritage Site.
In 1145, the city of Merv (in what is today Turkmenistan) may have been the World's largest, with a population of just two hundred thousand. Merv was an important oasis on the Silk Road in Central Asia, and had already been established under the Persian Empire. By the 1100s, China was undergoing a period of war so that its former million-person city of Kaifeng was quickly shrinking away, and Merv may have overtaken it. Today, Merv's important cultural history makes it a World Heritage Site.
An 18th-century copy of the original scroll Along the River During the Qingming Festival from 1085-1145 by Zhang Zeduan. It depicts a bustling city of the Song Dynasty spread over wooded islands, complete with inns, mansions, temples, chariots, 28 boats of various sizes & nine sedan chairs. A tax office is visible & entertainment is provided by actors, fortune tellers, & jugglers.