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12th century

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PROVINS, France: is known for its well-preserved city walls. Provins was home to one of the fairs that were crucial to the medieval European economy when the city was under the dominance of the Counts of Champagne. In the 12th century, a saint's head was brought from Jerusalem by Henry I of Champagne, who built a church to display it. Two sets of caves underlie parts of the town. The first set was likely used to store food in the Middle Ages.

古镇---普罗旺Provins-大巴黎- 法国 - 黄页点评 - 新欧洲 - 华人生活指南

live.xineurope.com

SPEYER CATHEDRAL, Germany: is the seat of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Speyer. It was completed in 1106, & was extremely influential in the subsequent development of Romanesque architecture during the 11th and 12th centuries. Conrad II commissioned the cathedral to be the Catholic world's largest church as well as his own tomb. It was one of the most ambitious projects of its time & when completed was one of the largest buildings in the world.

The Lost Fort: The Cathedral in Speyer - Architecture

lostfort.blogspot.com

VEZELAY ABBEY, France: today consists only of a church. The original abbey, based on the Benedictine rule of peaceful prayer & work, was founded, as many abbeys were, on land that had been a late Roman villa. The name Vézelay comes from the name of the villa, Vercellus. The current nave, which had burnt once, with great loss of life, burned again in 1165, after which it was rebuilt in its present form.

c. 1100-1750- Largely Hindu India comes under the control of invading Muslims. Under Muslim dominance, Hindus increasingly turn to the Bhakti movement, the belief that salvation is attainable by everyone without regard to class distinctions or traditional rituals. The movement is closely related to Islamic Sufism, which appears around the same time: both advocate that a personal expression of devotion to God is the way to become one with him.

Bhakti & Sufi Movements in the Undivided India

dailyexcelsior.com

WARTBURG, Germany: is a castle whose building spanned centuries. The largest structure of the Wartburg is the Palas, originally built in late Romanesque style between 1157 and 1170. The Wartburg was the supposed setting for the legendary Sängerkrieg- the singing contest which inspired Wagner's much later Tannhäuser opera- as well as the home of St. Elisabeth of Hungary & the place where Martin Luther translated the New Testament of the Bible into German.

Wartburg | Daily Grace

fuellers-germany.com

HISTORIC CENTRE OF SIGHISOARA, Romania: was built in the 12th century by Saxon colonists & exhibits architecture typical of medieval Germany. It was the birthplace of Vlad III the Impaler & remains today an inhabited medieval citadel.

Sighisoara - Historic Centre of Sighişoara, Romania

mapsofworld.com

late 12th–14th century, Eastern Central Asia. Silk embroidery on plain-weave silk; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Rogers Fund, 1988

style court: A World of Splendor

stylecourt.blogspot.pt

7 sufi masters trying to have one dream together (Persian drawing 12th century)

12th-century Chinese painting of The Night Revels of Han Xizai (韓熙載夜宴圖) showing musicians dressed in Hanfu

"If any church deserves the word “extraordinary” it is Kilpeck, Herefordshire. Once adjacent to a Benedictine monastery, it dates from about 1140 and is little changed since. Though from comparatively late in the Norman period, it is awash with the most elaborate carvings, many of a distinctly un-Christian nature. Celtic, Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon and pagan imagery vies with Christian iconography in a riot of dragons, warriors, monsters and animals." Simon Jenkins

BOCHNIA SALT MINE, Poland: is one of the oldest salt mines in the world. The mine was established between the 12th and 13th centuries & became part of the royal mining company. The Ważyn chamber has a specific microclimate, with a constant temperature between 57–61°F, about 70% humidity & favourable ionisation of the air saturated by sodium chloride, magnesium, manganese, & calcium.

GUIMARAES, Portugal: is associated with the emergence of the Portuguese national identity in the 12th century. An exceptionally well-preserved & authentic example of the evolution of a medieval settlement into a modern town, its rich buildings exemplify Portuguese architecture from the 15th to 19th century through the consistent use of traditional building materials and techniques.

Jayavarman VII reigned over the Khmer Empire from about 1181-1218 in what is today Cambodia. His wives are commonly thought to have been a great inspiration to him, particularly in his unusual devotion to Buddhism, as only one prior Khmer king was a Buddhist. Jayavarman came to historical prominence by leading an army that ousted invaders. At the time, he may already have been in his 60s.

Jayavarman VII - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org

ALCOBAÇA MONASTERY, Portugal: was founded by the first Portuguese King, Afonso Henriques, in 1153, and maintained a close association with the kings of Portugal throughout its history. It was the home of a powerful ecclesiastical lord whose authority extended over fertile lands, 13 towns, four seaports and two castles. From the reign of João I to that of João IV, the abbot was appointed by the king as a member of the Council, Grand Almoner, and Lord Protector of the Border.

MUDEJAR ARCHITECTURE OF ARAGON, Spain: owes its style to the singular nature of the Christian conquest, in the early 12th century, of some territories dominated by the Moors since the 8th century. During this initial occupation, long before Ferdinand & Isabella's Reconquista & Inquisition, the Christians allowed the Moors to remain on reconquered lands & keep their own culture and religion. Islamic art fascinated the Christians, who continued using its themes for a long time.

CINQUE TERRE, Italy: is a very jagged, steep coastline, which the work of humans over the millennia has transformed into an intensively terraced landscape so as to be able to wrest from nature a few hectares of land suitable for agriculture, such as growing vines and olive trees. The cultivation terraces that typify much of the Cinque Terre landscape were mainly built in the 12th century.

STARI RAS, Serbia: became, in 1159 at the accession of the Nemangic dynasty, the first Serb capital. It was the easternmost town of Serbia, bordering the First Bulgarian Empire.

STUDENICA MONASTERY, Serbia: was established in the late 12th century by Stefan Nemanja, founder of the medieval Serb state, shortly after his abdication. It is where Saint Sava Nemanjic, youngest heir of Stefan Nemanja, wrote the first literary work in the Serbian language.

The world's oldest complete scroll of the Torah containing the full text of the first five books of scripture. Experts and carbon dating tests done in Italy and United States put the scroll as having been written between 1155 and 1255. Identified by Professor of Hebrew, Mauro Perani, at the University of Bologna, Italy, May 2013.

Vardzia Cave, in the Caucasus Mountains of Georgia, was transformed into a monastery in the 12th century, during the reign of queen Tamar of Georgia.

1100-1300- During the Pueblo Golden Age, the Pueblo people build cliff dwellings containing as many as 200 rooms in a complex. The move to the cliffs may be for protection from other tribes or it may be to get closer to the springs that develop at cliff bases. During a period of drought around 1300, the Pueblo will abandon their cliff dwellings, probably moving west.

'The Queen of Sheba' fresco from sometime in the 1100s-1200s at the rock churches of Lalibela, Ethiopia.

In the 12th century, the compass oriented the mariners of Song Dynasty China. Atlantic magazine ranks it as the 17th greatest breakthrough since the wheel.