"If any church deserves the word “extraordinary” it is Kilpeck, Herefordshire. Once adjacent to a Benedictine monastery, it dates from about 1140 and is little changed since. Though from comparatively late in the Norman period, it is awash with the most elaborate carvings, many of a distinctly un-Christian nature. Celtic, Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon and pagan imagery vies with Christian iconography in a riot of dragons, warriors, monsters and animals." Simon Jenkins
BOCHNIA SALT MINE, Poland: is one of the oldest salt mines in the world. The mine was established between the 12th and 13th centuries & became part of the Royal mining company. The Ważyn chamber has a specific microclimate, with a constant temperature between 57–61°F, about 70% humidity & favourable ionisation of the air saturated by sodium chloride, magnesium, manganese, & calcium.
GUIMARAES, Portugal: is associated with the emergence of the Portuguese national identity in the 12th century. An exceptionally well-preserved & authentic example of the evolution of a medieval settlement into a modern town, its rich buildings exemplify Portuguese architecture from the 15th to 19th century through the consistent use of traditional building materials and techniques.
Jayavarman VII reigned over the Khmer Empire from about 1181-1218 in what is today Cambodia. His wives are commonly thought to have been a great inspiration to him, particularly in his unusual devotion to Buddhism, as only one prior Khmer king was a Buddhist. Jayavarman came to historical prominence by leading an army that ousted invaders. At the time, he may already have been in his 60s.
ALCOBAÇA MONASTERY, Portugal: was founded by the first Portuguese King, Afonso Henriques, in 1153, and maintained a close association with the kings of Portugal throughout its history. It was the home of a powerful ecclesiastical lord whose authority extended over fertile lands, 13 towns, four seaports and two castles. From the reign of João I to that of João IV, the abbot was appointed by the king as a member of the Council, Grand Almoner, and Lord Protector of the Border.
MUDEJAR ARCHITECTURE OF ARAGON, Spain: owes its style to the singular nature of the reconquest, in the early 12th century, of territories dominated by the Moors since the 8th century. During this initial occupation, long before Ferdinand & Isabella's Reconquista & Inquisition, the Christians allowed the Moors to remain on reconquered lands & keep their own culture and religion. Islamic art fascinated the Christians, who continued using its themes for a long time.
CINQUE TERRE, Italy: is a very jagged, steep coastline, which the work of humans over the millennia has transformed into an intensively terraced landscape so as to be able to wrest from nature a few hectares of land suitable for agriculture, such as growing vines and olive trees. The cultivation terraces that typify much of the Cinque Terre landscape were mainly built in the 12th century.
STUDENICA MONASTERY, Serbia: was established in the late 12th century by Stefan Nemanja, founder of the medieval Serb state, shortly after his abdication. It is where Saint Sava Nemanjic, youngest heir of Stefan Nemanja, wrote the first literary work in the Serbian language.
The world's oldest complete scroll of the Torah containing the full text of the first five books of scripture. Experts and carbon dating tests done in Italy and United States put the scroll as having been written between 1155 and 1255. Identified by Professor of Hebrew, Mauro Perani, at the University of Bologna, Italy, May 2013.
1100-1300- During the Pueblo Golden Age, the Pueblo people build cliff dwellings containing as many as 200 rooms in a complex. The move to the cliffs may be for protection from other tribes or it may be to get closer to the springs that develop at cliff bases. During a period of drought around 1300, the Pueblo will abandon their cliff dwellings, probably moving west.
Virgin and Child in Majesty, 1150–1200 French; Made in Auvergne Walnut with paint, gesso, and linen This type of sculpture, with the Christ Child seated in the Virgin's lap in a frontal pose, is known as a Sedes Sapientiae (Throne of Wisdom). These seemingly straightforward images convey complex theological ideas. Mary serves as Christ's throne.