Left-sided heart failure occurs when the left ventricle is not pumping blood out of the lungs sufficiently. Because of this blood backs up into the lungs, resulting in pulmonary congestion –> patient develops crackles and dyspnea. Nursing Care: Pt’s.
Preload is the stretch. The amount of volume being returned to the right side of the heart from systemic circulation. Afterload is the squeeze. The amount of resistance the left side of the heart has to overcome in order to eject blood.