Merck Veterinary Manual

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The Merck Veterinary Manual provides veterinary practitioners and students with practical explanations of what to do to diagnose and treat conditions in all of the major medical and surgical specialties. It covers when to suspect a disease, a sequence of evaluation, and treatment options along with selected alternatives.

Merck Manuals
Clinical Veterinary Videos
Authors of the Merck Veterinary Manual
Vet Student Stories
Clinical Veterinary Info
Remote Learning Tips
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Clinical Veterinary Videos

Watch to refresh your knowledge of pancreatitis in small animals. Click for the full details on the topic.

Pancreatitis in Small Animals

Watch to refresh your knowledge of pancreatitis in small animals. Click for the full details on the topic.

Heartwater Case: Typical Nervous Signs and Pedaling in a Calf

Heartwater Case: Typical Nervous Signs and Pedaling in a Calf

Learn more about heartwater: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/generalized-conditions/heartwater/overview-of-heartwater Heartwater is an infectious, noncontagio...

Cow with Heartwater Showing Exaggerated Blinking and Hyperesthesia

Cow with Heartwater Showing Exaggerated Blinking and Hyperesthesia

Learn more about heartwater: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/generalized-conditions/heartwater/overview-of-heartwater Heartwater is an infectious, noncontagio...

Clinical Signs of Heaves in Horses

Clinical Signs of Heaves in Horses

Learn more about recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/respiratory-system/respiratory-diseases-of-horses/recurrent-air...

Clinical Signs of Avian Encephalomyelitis

Clinical Signs of Avian Encephalomyelitis

Avian encephalomyelitis is a viral disease of young chickens, turkeys, Japanese quail, pheasants, and pigeons. Learn more: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/pou...

Facts on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Animals

Facts on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Small Animals

More on gastrointestinal parasites of small animals: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/digestive-system/gastrointestinal-parasites-of-small-animals/ Roundworm F...

Foal with Acute Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia, Ultrasound

Foal with Acute Bronchointerstitial Pneumonia, Ultrasound

More on acute bronchointerstitial pneumonia in foals: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/respiratory-system/respiratory-diseases-of-horses/acute-bronchointerstit...

Nursing Foal with a Congenital Cleft Palate

Nursing Foal with a Congenital Cleft Palate

More on congenital and inherited anomalies of the mouth: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/digestive-system/congenital-and-inherited-anomalies-of-the-digestive-...

Chondroid Removal in Right Guttural Pouch

Chondroid Removal in Right Guttural Pouch

More on gutteral pouch disease in horses: https://www.merckvetmanual.com/respiratory-system/respiratory-diseases-of-horses/guttural-pouch-disease-in-horses G...

Authors of the Merck Veterinary Manual

As Dean of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, our board member Dr. Peter Constable has worked with countless students. Here’s his advice for how to succeed in vet school! 🐶🐱

Meet Dr. Peter Constable

As Dean of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine, our board member Dr. Peter Constable has worked with countless students. Here’s his advice for how to succeed in vet school! 🐶🐱

Dr. Peter Davies, professor of  Veterinary Population Medicine at  the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine and Merck Veterinary Manual editorial board member, offers this is his advice for preventing burnout. 🐖

Meet Dr. Peter Davies

Dr. Peter Davies, professor of Veterinary Population Medicine at the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine and Merck Veterinary Manual editorial board member, offers this is his advice for preventing burnout. 🐖

Working with exotic animals at The Animal Medical Center, our board member Katherine Quesenberry, DVM, MPH meets new challenges every day. Her advice to vet students? Accept that there’s always more to learn. 🐦

Meet Dr. Katherine Quesenberry

Working with exotic animals at The Animal Medical Center, our board member Katherine Quesenberry, DVM, MPH meets new challenges every day. Her advice to vet students? Accept that there’s always more to learn. 🐦

We asked three of our Veterinary Manual editorial board members if they had any advice for current vet students, and here’s what they said...

Editorial Board - Merck Veterinary Manual

We asked three of our Veterinary Manual editorial board members if they had any advice for current vet students, and here’s what they said...

Why I Became a Swine Veterinarian - Peter R. Davies, BVSc, PhD

Why I Became a Swine Veterinarian - Peter R. Davies, BVSc, PhD

In this interview, Dr. Peter Davies of the Merck Veterinary Manual Editorial Board shares what inspired him to go to veterinary school and how the profession...

In this interview, Dr. Katherine Quesenberry of the Merck Veterinary Manual Editorial Board shares how her love of birds led from studying ornithology to avian veterinary medicine.

Why I Became an Avian Veterinarian - Katherine E. Quesenberry, DVM, MPH, DABVP

In this interview, Dr. Katherine Quesenberry of the Merck Veterinary Manual Editorial Board shares how her love of birds led from studying ornithology to avi...

In this interview, Dr. Peter Constable of the Merck Veterinary Manual Editorial Board shares why he decided to go to veterinary school and what he finds most rewarding about his career.

Why I Became a Veterinarian - Peter D. Constable, BVSc (Hons), MS, PhD, DACVIM

In this interview, Dr. Peter Constable of the Merck Veterinary Manual Editorial Board shares why he decided to go to veterinary school and what he finds most...

Vet Student Stories

Last summer, my friend and I had set out on an equine adventure...Click to read the entire story.

The Mare That Just Wouldn't Give Birth

Last summer, my friend and I had set out on an equine adventure...Click to read the entire story.

This year is going to generate some challenges, I can tell that already.

The Second Year of Veterinary School

This year is going to generate some challenges, I can tell that already.

6 simple ways you can reduce your carbon footprint in veterinary school.

Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

6 simple ways you can reduce your carbon footprint in veterinary school.

The first thing one learns about working in an emergency veterinary clinic is that no two nights are ever the same.

What is Veterinary Emergency Medicine Really Like

The first thing one learns about working in an emergency veterinary clinic is that no two nights are ever the same.

One student asks, what do veterinarians do with the hurt they feel?

Vet Med Burnout

One student asks, what do veterinarians do with the hurt they feel?

I was 25 years old when I realized my dream job would require years more professional training.

Life Isn't Always a Straight Path

I was 25 years old when I realized my dream job would require years more professional training.

Leg injuries in horses should always be taken with caution. Often leg pain in horses can have life-threatening secondary consequences such as colic or founder.

The Swelling of My Horse's Leg

Leg injuries in horses should always be taken with caution. Often leg pain in horses can have life-threatening secondary consequences such as colic or founder.

How I got into Vet School

An open letter to any student pursuing a professional career in healthcare

Dear Future Veterinary Student

An open letter to any student pursuing a professional career in healthcare

It's hard not feel the weight of student debt looming over your head as a veterinary student.

Saddled with Student Loans

It's hard not feel the weight of student debt looming over your head as a veterinary student.

If you struggle with equine anatomy, this story is for you.

Equine Anatomy, Enough Said

If you struggle with equine anatomy, this story is for you.

Read this story of a very ornery stallion and the removal of his three very special testicles.

Searching for Orchids: Equine Cryptorchidism

Read this story of a very ornery stallion and the removal of his three very special testicles.

Pug nail trims. Never have there existed three more terrifying words in the English language…

The Blair Pug Project

Pug nail trims. Never have there existed three more terrifying words in the English language…

A vet student on an away rotation is amazed at how many heartworm positive tests come in daily.

Taking it to Heart

A vet student on an away rotation is amazed at how many heartworm positive tests come in daily.

The hardest part of veterinary school isn't what you may think.

The Hardest Part of Vet School

The hardest part of veterinary school isn't what you may think.

There are cases that linger in your memory for a long time. Meet, Mama...

Meeting Mama

There are cases that linger in your memory for a long time. Meet, Mama...

5 fail-safe gift ideas for a vet student or vet tech student.

Gift Guide for the Veterinary Student

5 fail-safe gift ideas for a vet student or vet tech student.

Check out these 5 free resources you don't know about yet.

5 Free Resources for Veterinary Students

Check out these 5 free resources you don't know about yet.

Breakthrough veterinary science is changing how we heal burns.

How Tilapia Skin Can Change Lives

Breakthrough veterinary science is changing how we heal burns.

Clinical Veterinary Info

Anaplasmosis, formerly known as gall sickness, traditionally refers to a disease of ruminants caused by obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria of the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, genus Anaplasma. Cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and some wild ruminants can be infected with the erythrocytic Anaplasma. Anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (~40°N to 32°S), including South and Central America, the USA, southern Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

Anaplasmosis - Circulatory System

Anaplasmosis, formerly known as gall sickness, traditionally refers to a disease of ruminants caused by obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria of the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, genus Anaplasma. Cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and some wild ruminants can be infected with the erythrocytic Anaplasma. Anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (~40°N to 32°S), including South and Central America, the USA, southern Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Transmitted by ticks, babesiosis affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally people. Although the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections in other domestic animals, including horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs, assume varying degrees of importance throughout the world.  Learn more about the transmission and epidemiology of babesiosis.

Babesiosis - Circulatory System

Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Transmitted by ticks, babesiosis affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally people. Although the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections in other domestic animals, including horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs, assume varying degrees of importance throughout the world. Learn more about the transmission and epidemiology of babesiosis.

Marine mammals are susceptible to all of the major groups of parasites, including various nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, mites, lice, and acanthocephalans. Clinical experience with many of these is limited, whereas others are commonly seen in recently captured specimens.  Learn more about parasitic diseases of marine mammals.

Parasitic Diseases of Marine Mammals - Exotic and Laboratory Animals - Merck Veterinary Manual

Marine mammals are susceptible to all of the major groups of parasites, including various nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, mites, lice, and acanthocephalans. Clinical experience with many of these is limited, whereas others are commonly seen in recently captured specimens. Learn more about parasitic diseases of marine mammals.

Coccidiosis is usually an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or Isospora. Clinical signs include diarrhea, fever, inappetence, weight loss, emaciation, and in extreme cases, death. However, many infections are subclinical.   Learn more about coccidiosis.

Overview of Coccidiosis - Digestive System

Coccidiosis is usually an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or Isospora. Clinical signs include diarrhea, fever, inappetence, weight loss, emaciation, and in extreme cases, death. However, many infections are subclinical. Learn more about coccidiosis.

Ancylostoma caninum is the principal cause of canine hookworm disease in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Uncinaria stenocephala is the principal canine hookworm in cooler regions; it appears to be the predominant canine hookworm in Canada and the northern fringe of the USA.   Learn more about hookworms in small animals.

Hookworms in Small Animals - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Ancylostoma caninum is the principal cause of canine hookworm disease in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Uncinaria stenocephala is the principal canine hookworm in cooler regions; it appears to be the predominant canine hookworm in Canada and the northern fringe of the USA. Learn more about hookworms in small animals.

The large roundworms (ascaridoid nematodes) of dogs and cats are common, especially in puppies and kittens. Of the three species Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Toxocara cati, the most important is T canis, not only because its larvae may migrate in people (as do larvae of T cati), but also because infections are generally common and may impact puppy health.

Roundworms in Small Animals - Digestive System

The large roundworms (ascaridoid nematodes) of dogs and cats are common, especially in puppies and kittens. Of the three species Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Toxocara cati, the most important is T canis, not only because its larvae may migrate in people (as do larvae of T cati), but also because infections are generally common and may impact puppy health.

Knowledge Refresher on Epiglottic Entrapment in Horses  In this condition, the aryepiglottic fold completely envelops the apex and lateral margins of the epiglottis. The general shape of the epiglottis is visible, and the position (dorsal to the soft palate) is appropriate. However, the distinct serrated margins of the epiglottis and the dorsal epiglottic vascular pattern are obscured by a fold of aryepiglottic mucosa. Click to learn more.

Epiglottic Entrapment in Horses - Respiratory System

Knowledge Refresher on Epiglottic Entrapment in Horses In this condition, the aryepiglottic fold completely envelops the apex and lateral margins of the epiglottis. The general shape of the epiglottis is visible, and the position (dorsal to the soft palate) is appropriate. However, the distinct serrated margins of the epiglottis and the dorsal epiglottic vascular pattern are obscured by a fold of aryepiglottic mucosa. Click to learn more.

Porcine Proliferative Enteritis

Porcine Proliferative Enteritis - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Porcine Proliferative Enteritis

Diseases of the Paranasal Sinuses  in Horses

Diseases of the Paranasal Sinuses in Horses - Respiratory System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Learn about the veterinary topic of Diseases of the Paranasal Sinuses in Horses. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.

Overview of Lameness in Horses

Overview of Lameness in Horses - Musculoskeletal System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Overview of Lameness in Horses

The initial examination of the eye should assess symmetry, conformation, and gross lesions; the eye should be viewed from 2–3 ft (~1 m) away, in good light, and with minimal restraint of the head. Learn more about the physical examination of the eye.

Physical Examination of the Eye - Eye Diseases and Disorders - Merck Veterinary Manual

The initial examination of the eye should assess symmetry, conformation, and gross lesions; the eye should be viewed from 2–3 ft (~1 m) away, in good light, and with minimal restraint of the head. Learn more about the physical examination of the eye.

Learn more about common pet household hazards.

Overview of Household Hazards - Toxicology - Merck Veterinary Manual

Learn more about common pet household hazards.

Estimation of Age by Examination of the Teeth (Lower incisors, mare)

Estimation of Age by Examination of the Teeth - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Learn about the veterinary topic of Estimation of Age by Examination of the Teeth. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.

The small intestine of a horse comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, with the latter joining the cecum at a distinct ileocecal junction. Learn more.

Overview of Colic in Horses - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

The small intestine of a horse comprises the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, with the latter joining the cecum at a distinct ileocecal junction. Learn more.

Learn more about the physical examination of the eye.

Physical Examination of the Eye - Eye Diseases and Disorders - Merck Veterinary Manual

Learn more about the physical examination of the eye.

Learn more about poisonous range plants of temperate North America.

Range Plants of Temperate North America - Toxicology - Merck Veterinary Manual

Learn more about poisonous range plants of temperate North America.

The Merck Veterinary Manual

The Merck Veterinary Manual: 9780911910612: Medicine & Health Science Books @ Amazon.com

Refresh your knowledge of joint disorders in dogs.

Other Joint Disorders in Dogs - Dog Owners - Merck Veterinary Manual

Refresh your knowledge of joint disorders in dogs.

Coccidiosis is caused by protozoa of the phylum Apicomplexa, family Eimeriidae. In poultry, most species belong to the genus Eimeria and infect various sites in the intestine. The infectious process is rapid (4–7 days). Learn more.

Overview of Coccidiosis in Poultry - Poultry - Merck Veterinary Manual

Coccidiosis is caused by protozoa of the phylum Apicomplexa, family Eimeriidae. In poultry, most species belong to the genus Eimeria and infect various sites in the intestine. The infectious process is rapid (4–7 days). Learn more.

There are more than 4,000 species of lizards, ranging in size from a few inches to the Komodo dragon, the largest lizard, which can reach up to 10 feet in length.

Description and Physical Characteristics of Reptiles - All Other Pets - Merck Veterinary Manual

There are more than 4,000 species of lizards, ranging in size from a few inches to the Komodo dragon, the largest lizard, which can reach up to 10 feet in length.

Don't forget to remind your clients of these common and dangerous pet holiday hazards.

Holiday Hazards

Don't forget to remind your clients of these common and dangerous pet holiday hazards.

The clinical guide to understanding bird flu.

Avian Influenza - Poultry - Merck Veterinary Manual

The clinical guide to understanding bird flu.

Learn more about the complexity of the GI system of horses.

Overview of Colic in Horses - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Learn more about the complexity of the GI system of horses.

Among domestic animals, sheep are the most common host, but clinical infection has also been reported in cats, dogs, pigs, and horses.

Overview of Tularemia - Generalized Conditions - Merck Veterinary Manual

Among domestic animals, sheep are the most common host, but clinical infection has also been reported in cats, dogs, pigs, and horses.

Learn about the equine GI system in its entirety.

Overview of Colic in Horses - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Learn about the equine GI system in its entirety.

Hyphae of Aspergillus spp in cytology of an eye scraping from a horse with mycotic keratitis.

Aspergillosis - Generalized Conditions - Merck Veterinary Manual

Hyphae of Aspergillus spp in cytology of an eye scraping from a horse with mycotic keratitis.

Actinomyces bovis, gram-stained smear, high power. Note the characteristic branching nature of these slender gram-positive rods.

Overview of Actinomycosis - Generalized Conditions - Merck Veterinary Manual

Actinomyces bovis, gram-stained smear, high power. Note the characteristic branching nature of these slender gram-positive rods.

Remote Learning Tips

Congratulations to the fifth-place winner, Allison Stewart from the University of Queensland. Swipe left to learn more about the robust, multilingual clinical case study library she developed. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy. Click to learn more about the other winners.

International Equine Clinical Case Repository

Congratulations to the fifth-place winner, Allison Stewart from the University of Queensland. Swipe left to learn more about the robust, multilingual clinical case study library she developed. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy. Click to learn more about the other winners.

How to Teach Reproductive Veterinary Medicine Virtually

Congratulations to the fourth-place winner, Stephen Hines from Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Scroll through the images to learn about the podcast-style case discussions to teach basic principles of immunology he developed. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and Vetmedacademy.

Podcasts for Veterinary Students

Congratulations to the fourth-place winner, Stephen Hines from Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Scroll through the images to learn about the podcast-style case discussions to teach basic principles of immunology he developed. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and Vetmedacademy.

Congratulations to the third-place winner, Ruth Kustritz from the University of Minnesota. Learn more about the communications rotation she developed to provide students with hands-on training within a virtual space below. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The MSD Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy.

Communications in Small Animal Practice

Congratulations to the third-place winner, Ruth Kustritz from the University of Minnesota. Learn more about the communications rotation she developed to provide students with hands-on training within a virtual space below. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The MSD Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy.

In the spring, the Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy sponsored a contest to recognize innovative digital approaches to encouraging interaction between distant veterinary students and faculty during the first phases of remote learning.   Congratulations to first-place winner, Ariana Boltax from Cornell University! Scroll left to learn more about how she developed communication training scenarios for small animal and exotic euthanasia.

Communication Training Scenarios for Small Animal and Exotic Euthanasia

In the spring, the Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy sponsored a contest to recognize innovative digital approaches to encouraging interaction between distant veterinary students and faculty during the first phases of remote learning. Congratulations to first-place winner, Ariana Boltax from Cornell University! Scroll left to learn more about how she developed communication training scenarios for small animal and exotic euthanasia.

Other Pins

Congratulations to the fifth-place winner, Allison Stewart from the University of Queensland. Swipe left to learn more about the robust, multilingual clinical case study library she developed. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy. Click to learn more about the other winners.

International Equine Clinical Case Repository

Congratulations to the fifth-place winner, Allison Stewart from the University of Queensland. Swipe left to learn more about the robust, multilingual clinical case study library she developed. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy. Click to learn more about the other winners.

How to Teach Reproductive Veterinary Medicine Virtually

Congratulations to the fourth-place winner, Stephen Hines from Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Scroll through the images to learn about the podcast-style case discussions to teach basic principles of immunology he developed. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and Vetmedacademy.

Podcasts for Veterinary Students

Congratulations to the fourth-place winner, Stephen Hines from Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Scroll through the images to learn about the podcast-style case discussions to teach basic principles of immunology he developed. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The Merck Veterinary Manual and Vetmedacademy.

Congratulations to the third-place winner, Ruth Kustritz from the University of Minnesota. Learn more about the communications rotation she developed to provide students with hands-on training within a virtual space below. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The MSD Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy.

Communications in Small Animal Practice

Congratulations to the third-place winner, Ruth Kustritz from the University of Minnesota. Learn more about the communications rotation she developed to provide students with hands-on training within a virtual space below. Click to learn more about the other winners. This international contest was run in the spring of 2020 sponsored by The MSD Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy.

In the spring, the Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy sponsored a contest to recognize innovative digital approaches to encouraging interaction between distant veterinary students and faculty during the first phases of remote learning.   Congratulations to first-place winner, Ariana Boltax from Cornell University! Scroll left to learn more about how she developed communication training scenarios for small animal and exotic euthanasia.

Communication Training Scenarios for Small Animal and Exotic Euthanasia

In the spring, the Merck Veterinary Manual and VetMedAcademy sponsored a contest to recognize innovative digital approaches to encouraging interaction between distant veterinary students and faculty during the first phases of remote learning. Congratulations to first-place winner, Ariana Boltax from Cornell University! Scroll left to learn more about how she developed communication training scenarios for small animal and exotic euthanasia.

Get yourself a veterinary textbook that can do it all. 🤓 (Did we do this right, Dolly Parton?)

Merck Veterinary Manual

Get yourself a veterinary textbook that can do it all. 🤓 (Did we do this right, Dolly Parton?)

Visit our website to complete this interactive veterinary case study.

Chicken Turtle With Lethargy

Visit our website to complete this interactive veterinary case study.

Anaplasmosis, formerly known as gall sickness, traditionally refers to a disease of ruminants caused by obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria of the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, genus Anaplasma. Cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and some wild ruminants can be infected with the erythrocytic Anaplasma. Anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (~40°N to 32°S), including South and Central America, the USA, southern Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

Anaplasmosis - Circulatory System

Anaplasmosis, formerly known as gall sickness, traditionally refers to a disease of ruminants caused by obligate intraerythrocytic bacteria of the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae, genus Anaplasma. Cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and some wild ruminants can be infected with the erythrocytic Anaplasma. Anaplasmosis occurs in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide (~40°N to 32°S), including South and Central America, the USA, southern Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Transmitted by ticks, babesiosis affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally people. Although the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections in other domestic animals, including horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs, assume varying degrees of importance throughout the world.  Learn more about the transmission and epidemiology of babesiosis.

Babesiosis - Circulatory System

Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Transmitted by ticks, babesiosis affects a wide range of domestic and wild animals and occasionally people. Although the major economic impact of babesiosis is on the cattle industry, infections in other domestic animals, including horses, sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs, assume varying degrees of importance throughout the world. Learn more about the transmission and epidemiology of babesiosis.

Marine mammals are susceptible to all of the major groups of parasites, including various nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, mites, lice, and acanthocephalans. Clinical experience with many of these is limited, whereas others are commonly seen in recently captured specimens.  Learn more about parasitic diseases of marine mammals.

Parasitic Diseases of Marine Mammals - Exotic and Laboratory Animals - Merck Veterinary Manual

Marine mammals are susceptible to all of the major groups of parasites, including various nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, mites, lice, and acanthocephalans. Clinical experience with many of these is limited, whereas others are commonly seen in recently captured specimens. Learn more about parasitic diseases of marine mammals.

Watch to refresh your knowledge of pancreatitis in small animals. Click for the full details on the topic.

Pancreatitis in Small Animals

Watch to refresh your knowledge of pancreatitis in small animals. Click for the full details on the topic.

Coccidiosis is usually an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or Isospora. Clinical signs include diarrhea, fever, inappetence, weight loss, emaciation, and in extreme cases, death. However, many infections are subclinical.   Learn more about coccidiosis.

Overview of Coccidiosis - Digestive System

Coccidiosis is usually an acute invasion and destruction of intestinal mucosa by protozoa of the genera Eimeria or Isospora. Clinical signs include diarrhea, fever, inappetence, weight loss, emaciation, and in extreme cases, death. However, many infections are subclinical. Learn more about coccidiosis.

Ancylostoma caninum is the principal cause of canine hookworm disease in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Uncinaria stenocephala is the principal canine hookworm in cooler regions; it appears to be the predominant canine hookworm in Canada and the northern fringe of the USA.   Learn more about hookworms in small animals.

Hookworms in Small Animals - Digestive System - Merck Veterinary Manual

Ancylostoma caninum is the principal cause of canine hookworm disease in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Uncinaria stenocephala is the principal canine hookworm in cooler regions; it appears to be the predominant canine hookworm in Canada and the northern fringe of the USA. Learn more about hookworms in small animals.

The large roundworms (ascaridoid nematodes) of dogs and cats are common, especially in puppies and kittens. Of the three species Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Toxocara cati, the most important is T canis, not only because its larvae may migrate in people (as do larvae of T cati), but also because infections are generally common and may impact puppy health.

Roundworms in Small Animals - Digestive System

The large roundworms (ascaridoid nematodes) of dogs and cats are common, especially in puppies and kittens. Of the three species Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Toxocara cati, the most important is T canis, not only because its larvae may migrate in people (as do larvae of T cati), but also because infections are generally common and may impact puppy health.

Knowledge Refresher on Epiglottic Entrapment in Horses  In this condition, the aryepiglottic fold completely envelops the apex and lateral margins of the epiglottis. The general shape of the epiglottis is visible, and the position (dorsal to the soft palate) is appropriate. However, the distinct serrated margins of the epiglottis and the dorsal epiglottic vascular pattern are obscured by a fold of aryepiglottic mucosa. Click to learn more.

Epiglottic Entrapment in Horses - Respiratory System

Knowledge Refresher on Epiglottic Entrapment in Horses In this condition, the aryepiglottic fold completely envelops the apex and lateral margins of the epiglottis. The general shape of the epiglottis is visible, and the position (dorsal to the soft palate) is appropriate. However, the distinct serrated margins of the epiglottis and the dorsal epiglottic vascular pattern are obscured by a fold of aryepiglottic mucosa. Click to learn more.

Last summer, my friend and I had set out on an equine adventure...Click to read the entire story.

The Mare That Just Wouldn't Give Birth

Last summer, my friend and I had set out on an equine adventure...Click to read the entire story.