# How to conduct research and statistics

## Collection by Research Engineer

This board is focused on providing users with information and methods for conducting and interpreting research and statistics. https://www.scalelive.com

### PICO Framework - Intervention in the Research Question

Include the intervention in your research question using the PICO framwork.

### Small Effect Sizes Decrease Statistical Power and Increase The Needed Sample Size

Small effect sizes decrease statistical power and increase the needed sample size.

### Intention-to-Treat in Randomized Controlled Trials

"Intention-to-Treat" analysis in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) means that all study participants are analyzed in the same group they were randomly assigned to at the beginning of a study.

### Use and Interpret Independent Samples t-tests in SPSS

Independent samples t-test is used to compare two groups on a continuous outcome. SPSS can be used to conduct assumptions and independent samples t-test.

### Calculate The Sample Size Needed for a Research Study

Calculate the needed sample size for ten different statistical tests using G*Power. Choose inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, and sampling methods.

### Hire A Statistician For Your Research Project

Eric Heidel, PhD, is a professional statistician that you can hire to provide statistical consulting on your research study.

### Small Sample Sizes Decrease Statistical Power and Decrease The Flexibility Of The Effect Size

Small sample sizes decrease statistical power and decrease the flexibility of effect sizes.

### Calculate The Sample Size for Mann-Whitney U

The steps for calculating the sample size for a Mann-Whitney U test in G*Power are presented. The effect size is the difference in means between groups.

### FINER and ethical research questions

Ethical research questions are written to protect human beings and animals from unfair or dangerous research methods. Ethical is the fourth part of FINER.

### Use and Interpret ANOVA in SPSS

ANOVA is used to compare three or more groups on a normal continuous outcome. SPSS can be used to test the statistical assumptions as well as ANOVA.

### Ordinal Outcomes Decrease Statistical Power and Increase The Needed Sample Size

Ordinal outcomes decrease statistical power and increase the needed sample size. This is because ordinal outcomes lack precision and accuracy.

### Calculate Odds Ratio with 95% Confidence Intervals

The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval is used for chi-square and case-control designs. The width of the confidence interval is the primary inference.

### Use and Interpret Mann-Whitney U When Homogeneity of Variance is Violated

Mann-Whitney U is used when the assumption of homogeneity of variance is violated for independent samples t-test. SPSS can be used to conduct Mann-Whitney U.

### Statistical Power and The Chosen Research Design

Statistical power is affected by research designs. Within-subjects designs increase statistical power, between-subjects and multivariate designs decrease power.

### Appraising Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence for Empirical Benchmarks

When appraising random controlled trial evidence, there are certain benchmarks that have to be met: Random selection, random assignment, and intention-to-treat.