November 27, 1095: Pope Urban II Orders First Crusade On this day in 1095, Pope Urban II gave rise to the Crusades by calling all Christians in Europe to wage war against Muslims in order to reclaim the Holy Land. Pope Urban’s brutal and bloody war was the first of seven major military campaigns, known as the Crusades, fought over the next two centuries.
Battle of Muret - September 12, 1213: in which the French nobleman Simon IV de Montfort defeated Raymond VI of Toulouse and King Pedro II of Aragon in a major battle of the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars. Peter's death - a famous crusader who had faced the Muslims in Spain-was detrimental to the Cathar cause.
Richard I (1157 - 1199). Called Richard the Lionheart. King from 1189 - 1199. He was named Duke of Aquitaine by his mother before his father died and made him King of England. He participated in the crusades. An assassin shot an arrow near his neck and he died from his wound days later.
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. Referred to as the "father of Europe", his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, and the Carolingian renaissance (a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church) encouraged the formation of a common European identity. The French and German monarchies descending from the empire ruled by Charlemagne cover most of Europe.
Olifant and the Hunting Knife of Charlemagne (with sheath). Among the objects in the Aachen Cathedral Treasury with which were connected with Charlemagne is an Olifant from 11th century (Saracen) Southern Italy or the east, which was long considered the Hunting Horn of Charlemagne. There is also the so-called Hunting Knife of Charlemagne, dating to the eighth century.