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Geological processes and formations.

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Comparison of eruption sizes using the volume of magma erupted from several volcanoes.

Smithsonian Institute Global Volcanism Program

How big is super? Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI) - is a measure of the relative explosiveness of volcanic eruptions.

What is a Supervolcano? | PLUTONS

Supervolcano This cross-section demonstrates how magma is distributed under a caldera. Similar calderas are located on the map above.

What is a Supervolcano? | PLUTONS

Volcano vs. Supervolcano 1. Volcano: Common volcanos such as Láscar and Uturuncu are formed when water is released from oceanic plates in subduction zones. Supervolcanos are also found near subduction zones, or above mid-plate hotspots.

What is a Supervolcano? | PLUTONS

Volcanic explosivity index

Volcanic Explosivity Index: Measuring the size of an eruption

Volcanic explosivity index

Volcanic Explosivity Index: Measuring the size of an eruption

Diagram of the repeating development of the Las Cañadas magma chamber. Credit: Tom Gernon

Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.

Вулканичен експлозивен индекс — Уикипедия

V některých částech dolu se stále ještě těží. Foto, ilustrace: Profimedia

Quartz with blue fluorite inclusions.

The Rock Cycle

Tectonic Plates on Earth

The Geological Time Spiral

Ethiopian kryptonite (opal) | via Jeff Schultz on Flickr

Fossilised teeth | via Jeff Schultz on Flickr

Gallium: A metal with a melting point of a little over 27 degrees centigrade. Meaning it melts from solid state to liquid state in your hand

Fire Opal in matrix, Mexico | via Jeff Schultz on Flickr

Helpful gem chart

Amethyst Crystal Ball

2.4" Amethyst Geode Sphere, Crystal Ball

Boulder Opal

Blog - Laura Preshong Jewelry

Veszelyite. One of the minerals called phosphates. All phosphates have the phosphate group, PO4, in their chemical composition. Many phosphates form from the chemical alteration of other minerals in the presence of oxygen. Group: Phosphates. Image Number: 97-35129. Catalog Number: 148368. M. Stuart

The Dynamic Earth @ National Museum of Natural History

Smithsonite. The mineral was named after James Smithson, the British chemist and mineralogist who first recognized it as a distinct mineral, different from calamine(hemimorphite). It is mined for zinc. James Smithson (1754-1829) was the founder of the Smithsonian Institution. Group: Carbonates, Image Number: MSA 62

The Dynamic Earth @ National Museum of Natural History

Liddicoatite. Slice from a single crystal of liddicoatite. The colour-zoning reveal the crystal's history, just as the rings in a tree records its past. Crystals may start and stop growing many times. In most cases, there is no way of knowing how long each phase lasted. This particular crystal changed color as it grew. The pink portion of the liddicoatite formed when the solution feeding it was manganese rich. The green part grew when the solution became iron rich.

The Dynamic Earth @ National Museum of Natural History

Rare Nipomo marcasite in agate, from California.

NIPOMO MARCASITE designer cab Silverhawk's designer gemstones.