Sumerian ("native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, which was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) from at least the 4th millennium BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.
Elamite Dog Amulet of the goddess Gula, Circa 3rd Millennium BC In ancient Elam, the significance of the dog was related to the goddess Gula, since they were her sacred animals. As the goddess of healing and patroness of doctors, these gold amuletic dogs may have been thought to have healing powers.
Mesopotamian Stone Votive Figure, 3rd millennium BCE. "Votive statues in an attitude of prayer originated in Mesopotamia at the beginning of the third millenium BC. They were placed in temples to represent the donor in perpetual prayer before the gods. As this small figure is pierced, it may have been worn as an amulet."