The Stranger or The Outsider (L’Étranger) is a novel by Albert Camus published in 1942. Its theme and outlook are often cited as examples of existentialism, though Camus did not consider himself an existentialist; in fact, its content explores various philosophical schools of thought, including (most prominently and specifically) absurdism, as well as determinism, nihilism, naturalism, and stoicism.
The essay Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus), 1942, expounds Camus's notion of the absurd and of its acceptance with "the total absence of hope, which has nothing to do with despair, a continual refusal, which must not be confused with renouncement - and a conscious dissatisfaction".
"Si j’avais à écrire un livre de morale, il aurait cent pages et quatre-vingt-dix-neuf seraient blanches. Sur la dernière, j’écrirais « Je ne connais qu’un seul devoir et c’est celui d’aimer ». Et pour le reste, je dis non. Je dis non de toutes mes forces, car l’amour est le seul vrai sentiment." - Albert Camus