“a more abstract and profound conception of a geometrical object in which one dimension represents time. It’s much earlier than these concepts have ever been found before, he said, and “their presence … testifies to the revolutionary brilliance of the unknown Mesopotamian scholars who constructed Babylonian mathematical astronomy.”
The “Emperor’s Astronomy” (Petrus Apianus, 1495-1552) is one of the great masterpieces of sixteenth-century printing, and also one of the top-ten in my personal digital collection. I found the codex a couple of months ago, when I was looking for “volvelles” (or wheel chart, which is a paper slide chart with rotating parts used mainly in ancient astronomy treatises, introduced by Persian astronomer Abu Rayhan Biruni).
Table of Astronomy. Illustration from Cyclopaedia: or, An Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (two volumes in folio) — an encyclopedia published by Ephraim Chambers in London in 1728, and reprinted in numerous editions in the eighteenth century. via Scientific Illustration blog.