The Kingdom of Northern Israel fell in 724 BC to Assyria and the Kingdom of Judah fell in 586 BC to Babylon. The Jewish and Israelite people were taken captive and deported. The exiled Jewish people from the Southern Kingdom of Judah were allowed to return to the land of Israel and rebuild the cities and the Temple thanks to an edict of King Cyrus the Great in 537 BC - ConformingToJesus.com
Babylonian captivity (or Babylonian exile) during which Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia. Biblical depictions of the exile include Book of Jeremiah 39–43 (which saw the exile as a lost opportunity); the final section of 2 Kings (which portrays it as the temporary end of history); 2 Chronicles (in which the exile is the "Sabbath of the land"); and the opening chapters of Ezra, which records its end. Other works about the exile include the stories in Daniel 1–6
Babylon. The Cyrus Cylinder: an ancient clay cylinder with a written declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Cyrus the Great, ca 539–530 BC: discovered in the ruins of Babylon in 1879. It declares Cyrus’ policy of the repatriation of the Jewish people following their Babylonian captivity, as the text refers to the restoration of cult sanctuaries and repatriation of deported peoples.
The Manifesto of the Reformation - August 1520 Martin Luther's 'On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church,' in which he criticizes the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, was the second of three treatises published by Luther in 1520 which became manifestos for the Reformation.