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Charge Density

Aerogels are the world's lightest solid materials, composed of up to 99.98% air by volume. Aerogels are a diverse class of amazing materials with properties unlike anything else. Transparent superinsulating silica aerogels exhibit the lowest thermal conductivity of any solid known. Ultrahigh surface area carbon aerogels power today's fast-charging supercapacitors. And ultrastrong, bendable x-aerogels are the lowest-density structural materials ever developed.


Saturn’s sponge-like moon Hyperion - one of Saturn’s outer moons is one of the largest bodies in the Solar System known to be so irregular. Cassini was approximately 62 000 km from Hyperion when the image was taken - Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute


Tetryonic 806 - Relating the musical notes to the maths of units circles and the spectral colours via the charged Planck geometry of photons [the geometric unification of maths, music and physics]

from the Guardian

Maxwell's equations: 150 years of light

Simulation of an elliptically polarized electric dipole, pictured as two rotating opposite charges, inducing waves in a nearby metal surface (the height of the metal surface represents the simulated surface charge density). Changing the orientation of the dipole changes the direction in which the waves travel.

from Great Things from Small Things .. Nanotechnology Innovation

‘Giant’ charge density disturbances discovered in nanomaterials

‘Giant’ charge density disturbances discovered in nano materials ~ German researchers have, with the help of computer simulations, discovered a combination of materials that strengthens the so-called Friedel oscillations and bundles them, as if with a lens, in different directions. With a range of 50 nanometers...

Heparin (from Ancient Greek ηπαρ (hepar), liver), also known as unfractionated heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant, and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule.


Scientists have discovered that when the iron oxide Fe4O5 is cooled to temperatures below 150K it goes through an unusual phase transition related to a formation of charge-density waves - which lead to a "four-dimensional" crystal structure.