Made for Richard II and worn by his wife and then given as part of the dowery along with an English Princess a few years later when she married into a german royal house. This is the only reason it survived the brutal melting down of the crown jewels by Oliver Cromwell and so it is the last English Medieval crown still in existence. As well as the large rubies and sapphires, there are small emeralds and diamonds and some enamel work too. and the obvious pearls.
The Imperial State Crown (1937) is worn by the Queen at each State Opening of Parliament. One of the youngest crowns in the collection, it holds a number of much older gems. The crown was remade in 1937 after the previous frame weakened under the weight of the gemstones.