The Stewart Sapphire, which had been owned by the Royal House of Scotland for centuries, was also given to George III. The original owner of the sapphire was reputed to have been King Alexander II of Scotland, who had it set into his crown for his coronation in 1214. Edward I of England took the sapphire along with the Stone of Scone in 1296, during his invasion of Scotland. His grandson, King Edward III, later returned the jewel to his brother-in-law David II of Scotland.
Catherine the Great was such an energetic empress that she reorganized the provincial government, began state-sponsored education, and codified laws. Embracing western ideas, she enncouraged French customs and language, wrote plays and histories, and organized court performances. As a serious student of French thinkers, she led the Englightment.
This crown was created in 1856 by Russian Court Jewelers & made from silver & diamonds for Alexander II's wife, Maria Alexandrovna, who later presented it to her beloved daughter-in-law Dagmar-Minnie-Marie Feodorovna.