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The electrical potential or neuronal transmission begins with resting membrane potential, which is due to an unequal distribution of electrolytes between the extracellular fluid (ECF) and the intracellular fluid (ICF). The RMP results from the simple diffusion of ions, selective permeability, and electrical attraction of cations and anions. Potassium has greatest influence to RMP since the membrane is more permeable to it, resulting in more potassium in the ICF and more sodium in the ECF.

Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in animals and humans. These fluids, such as blood plasma and extracellular fluids in other tissues, bathe cells and carry out transport functions for nutrients and wastes.


Major fluid compartments. Intracellular fluid (ICF) is fluid within cells. Extracellular fluid (ECF) is fluid outside of cells. The ECF includes interstitial fluid surrounding the cells, and plasma, the fluid component of blood. (In addition, specialized ECF includes synovial fluid, CSF, aqueous fluid in the eye, and some specialized GI secretions.) Fluid continually moves between the major compartments.

2 One of the 6 essential nutrients needed by our body for its healthy functioning is carbohydrates. Our body uses these carbohydrates from monosaccharide glucose. Glucose is usually in blood and other extracellular fluids and can also be made from glycogen. This glycogen is normally stored in the muscles, our liver and other organs and the tissues of our body.


Glomerulosa: primarily mineralocorticoids, mostly aldosterone, are essential to regulation of electrolyte concentrations of extracellular fluids (Na+ & K+). Aldosterone secretion is regulated by the renin-angiotensin mechanism, fluctuating blood concentrations of sodium and potassium ions (increased sodium levels/decreased potassium levels), and secretion of ACTH.