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Fluorescence light micrograph of sporangia on the underside of a fern frond. Sporangia are spore-producing receptacles found in clusters called sori. Each sporangium is packed with spores (brown), which are the fern's reproductive cells. Credit: Rogelio Moreno/Science Photo Library


Fern spores are produced in vast numbers on the understide of fern fronds during the summer months. For details of how they are catapaulted into the airstream, take a look at