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Tetralogy of Fallot is a birth defect of the heart consisting of four abnormalities that results in insufficiently oxygenated blood pumped to the body. It is classified as a cyanotic heart defect because the condition leads to cyanosis, a bluish-purple coloration to the skin, and shortness of breath due to low oxygen levels in the blood. Surgery to repair the defects in the heart is usually performed between 3 and 5 years old. In more severe forms, surgery may be indicated earlier…

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from Mama Hippie

9 Ways to Honor a Baby Lost Too Soon

Losing a child is difficult, whether it be an ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth or fetal abnormality. Nine ideas to honor the baby and life that never was.

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thick nuchal fold shows high probability of chromosomal abnormality......Shows fetal ultrasounds with normal and abnormal images.

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from Babiology Pregnancy And Baby Textbook

Reasons behind Fetal Abnormalities and Prevention Methods

Neural tube defects: INCREASED AFP, normal hCG and DECREASED estradiol. 2-3% of all AFP are high, but only 10% show a NTD. Seems like I should know that AFP that is >2.5 times MOM is present in 80% of NTD. If DM mom, just need >2. If twins, need >4.5! Other things a/w increase: renal, teratoma, hygromas, hydrops, turner, bowel obstxn, twins, wrong age, fetal demise, FMH.

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In Amniocentesis, a hollow needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen into the uterus, and amniotic fluid is drawn for analysis.

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