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Tetralogy of Fallot is a birth defect of the heart consisting of four abnormalities that results in insufficiently oxygenated blood pumped to the body. It is classified as a cyanotic heart defect because the condition leads to cyanosis, a bluish-purple coloration to the skin, and shortness of breath due to low oxygen levels in the blood. Surgery to repair the defects in the heart is usually performed between 3 and 5 years old. In more severe forms, surgery may be indicated earlier…

from Mama Hippie

9 Ways to Honor a Baby Lost Too Soon

Losing a child is difficult, whether it be an ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth or fetal abnormality. Nine ideas to honor the baby and life that never was.


thick nuchal fold shows high probability of chromosomal abnormality......Shows fetal ultrasounds with normal and abnormal images.

from Babiology Pregnancy And Baby Textbook

Reasons behind Fetal Abnormalities and Prevention Methods

Neural tube defects: INCREASED AFP, normal hCG and DECREASED estradiol. 2-3% of all AFP are high, but only 10% show a NTD. Seems like I should know that AFP that is >2.5 times MOM is present in 80% of NTD. If DM mom, just need >2. If twins, need >4.5! Other things a/w increase: renal, teratoma, hygromas, hydrops, turner, bowel obstxn, twins, wrong age, fetal demise, FMH.


In Amniocentesis, a hollow needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen into the uterus, and amniotic fluid is drawn for analysis.