In this "artful, informative, and delightful" (William H. McNeill, New York Review of Books) book, Jared Diamond convincingly argues that geographical and environmental factors shaped the modern world. Societies that had had a head start in food production advanced beyond the hunter-gatherer stage, and then developed religion --as well as nasty germs and potent weapons of war --and adventured on sea and land to conquer and decimate preliterate cultures.
Jared Diamond - Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies Diamond argues that the gaps in power and technology between human societies originate in environmental differences. When differences have favored Eurasians (for example, written language or the development among Eurasians of resistance to endemic diseases), he asserts that these advantages occurred because of the influence of geography on societies and cultures, and were not inherent in the Eurasian genomes
Guns, Germs, And Steel by Jared Diamond. Great book attempting to explain why Eurasian civilizations have been overall more successful, attributing the success not to the inherent genetic superiority but rather to environmental differences.