Popolo-The popolo was a pressure group in Italy that protected the interests of the commoners. It developed its own officials that had the same power as the government communes. DR - 15th-16th c. - PP

ICONOCLASM: Protestant mobs in many cities took down and smashed statues, stained-glass windows, and paintings. This was an example of men and women carrying out the Reformation themselves. The mobs would rethink the church's system of meaning and the relationship between the unseen and the seen.

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Jesus depicted on an early 8th-century Byzantine coin. After the Byzantine iconoclasm all coins had Christ on them.

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Double-Sided Pendant Icon with the Virgin and Christ Pantokrator, ca. 1080–1120 Byzantine; Made in Constantinople Inscribed in Greek initials: Mother of God (front); Jesus Christ, King of Glory (back) Cloisonné enamel, gold

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Medallion with Christ from an Icon Frame, ca. 1100....Byzantine; From the Djumati Monastery, Georgia (now Republic of Georgia); Made in Constantinople Cloisonné enamel, gold

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Madonna and Child Berlinghiero (Italian, Lucca, active by 1228, died by 1236). This painting—of exceptional beauty and importance—is one of only two that can be confidently assigned to him on the basis of comparison with a signed crucifix. Berlinghiero was always open to Byzantine influence, and this Madonna is of the Byzantine type known as the Hodegetria, in which the Madonna points to the Child as the way to salvation. (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/60.173)

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Plaque with the Crucifixion and the Defeat of Hades, mid-10th century Byzantine; Probably made in Constantinople Ivory -A masterpiece in the corpus of Byzantine ivory icons, this small representation of the Crucifixion is the only surviving portion of a triptych whose wings are now missing. It was probably used as a personal devotional object in a private setting.

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The Novgorod School of Art, Russia: Icons of the Black Russians Part 1: – Presented by Oguejiofo Annu | Rasta Livewire

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