ICONOCLASM: Protestant mobs in many cities took down and smashed statues, stained-glass windows, and paintings. This was an example of men and women carrying out the Reformation themselves. The mobs would rethink the church's system of meaning and the relationship between the unseen and the seen.
Double-Sided Pendant Icon with the Virgin and Christ Pantokrator, ca. 1080–1120 Byzantine; Made in Constantinople Inscribed in Greek initials: Mother of God (front); Jesus Christ, King of Glory (back) Cloisonné enamel, gold
Madonna and Child Berlinghiero (Italian, Lucca, active by 1228, died by 1236). This painting—of exceptional beauty and importance—is one of only two that can be confidently assigned to him on the basis of comparison with a signed crucifix. Berlinghiero was always open to Byzantine influence, and this Madonna is of the Byzantine type known as the Hodegetria, in which the Madonna points to the Child as the way to salvation. (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/60.173)
Plaque with the Crucifixion and the Defeat of Hades, mid-10th century Byzantine; Probably made in Constantinople Ivory -A masterpiece in the corpus of Byzantine ivory icons, this small representation of the Crucifixion is the only surviving portion of a triptych whose wings are now missing. It was probably used as a personal devotional object in a private setting.