John Bardeen ForMemRS (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer, the only person to have won the Nobel Prize in Physics twice: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory.
Though Shockley would correct the record where reporters gave him sole credit for the invention, he eventually infuriated and alienated Bardeen and Brattain, and he essentially blocked the two from working on the junction transistor. Bardeen began pursuing a theory for superconductivity and left Bell Labs in 1951. Brattain refused to work with Shockley further and was assigned to another group.
John Bardeen 1972 Born: 23 May 1908, Madison, WI, USA Died: 30 January 1991, Boston, MA, USA Affiliation at the time of the award: University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA Prize motivation: "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory" Field: Superconductivity