The Kingdom of Northumbria (/nɔrˈθʌmbriə/; Old English: Norþhymbra rīce, "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian kingdom, in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, becoming subsequently an earldom in a unified English kingdom. The name reflects the approximate southern limit to the kingdom's territory, the Humber estuary.
Coin of Eric Haraldsson (nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe) at the British Museum. The legend reads ERIC REX ("King Eric"). Bloodaxe, also king of Norway for a brief period, was the last independent Northumbrian monarch. After his death in 954, the English regained the territory of the kingdom of Northumbria.
Border tartan is one of the oldest in existence as fragments have been found in Great Britain & Jutland. Discovered at the Antonine Wall in Falkirk, Scotland (Falkirk Sett) is currently the earliest check or tartan fragment dates back to Roman times (3rd century CE) Another was found on a cloak in the peat bog at Thorsberg, northern Germany suggesting that the Germanic peoples used the design to an greater extent than those in England.
Oswald of Northumbria was King of Northumbria from 634 until his death, and was venerated as a saint in the Middle Ages. Oswald was the son of Æthelfrith of Bernicia and came to rule after spending a period in exile; after defeating the British ruler Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Oswald brought the two Northumbrian kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira once again under a single ruler, and promoted the spread of Christianity in Northumbria.