The chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the medulla that receives inputs from blood-borne drugs, and communicates with the vomiting center to initiate vomiting. The CTZ is close to the area postrema on the floor of the fourth ventricle & is outside of the BBB. The neurotransmitters implicated in the control of nausea and vomiting include ACh, DA, histamine (H-1R), substance P, and 5-HT. The BBB is not as developed here, and drugs such as DA may stimulate the CTZ. ORs control the…
Researchers pinpoint brain region as ‘ground zero’ of Alzheimer’s disease. It's the "locus coeruleus", a small bluish part of the brainstem that releases norepinephrine, the neurotransmitter responsible for regulating heart rate, attention, memory and cognition.
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) is the area that synthesizes dopamine, which then sends to nucleus accumbens. Nucelus accumbens is the pleasure center, and it is stimulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine from VTA. VTA also sends dopamine to prefrontal cortex which regulates and controls these impulses. The locus coeruleus is the area packed with norepinephrine; and when stimulated by a lack of the addictive substance, will drives the person to do anything necessary to obtain a fix.
Researchers Show How Lost Sleep Leads to Lost Neurons - NeuroscienceNews.com First report in preclincal study showing extended wakefulness can result in neuronal injury. Image shows a high magnification micrograph of the locus coeruleus. The locus coeruleus is a nucleus found in the rostral pons in the lateral floor of the fourth ventricle. Credit Nephron.