The above formula is used for calculating the changes that occur when objects approach the speed of light. An object in motion undergoes 3 relativistic changes: 1) an increase in mass, 2) a contraction in the direction of travel (Lorentz Transformation) and 3) A "slowing down" of time. (Time Dilation)
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (Arnhem, 18 July 1853 – Haarlem, 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect. He also derived the transformation equations subsequently used by Albert Einstein to describe space and time.
Lorentz Transformation - describes how, according to the theory of special relativity, different measurements of space and time by two observers can be converted into the measurements observed in either frame of reference.
Views of spacetime along the world line of a rapidly accelerating observer in a relativistic universe. The events ("dots") that pass the two diagonal lines in the bottom half of the image (the past light cone of the observer in the origin) are the events visible to the observer.
Henri Poincaré (1854–1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and a philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as The Last Universalist, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime. He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, which was one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics until it was solved in 2002–2003.
Spacetime diagram of the light cones of observers who are moving with respect to each other. Due to the Lorentz transformation, the three-dimensional region known as the 'hypersurface of the present' of any observer is tilted if compared to that of another observer moving at a different rate. This means there can be no real simultaneity between events as seen by observers moving at different velocities.