The Burkholtzer Lute - The original instrument was made by Hans Burkholtzer in Füssen in 1596 and is now in the Vienna Kunsthisorisches Museum, item number SAM 44. It was probably made as a seven or eight course instrument and there is a label inside which indicates that conversion to eleven courses was executed in 1705 by Thomas Edlinger of Prague. At some date after 1719 the bass rider was added by an unknown craftsman to make a thirteen course instrument.
English cittern, circa 1600. A stringed instrument dating from the Renaissance, descended from the Medieval citole, or citole. Its flat-back design was simpler and cheaper to construct than the lute. It was also easier to play, smaller, less delicate and more portable. Played by all classes, the cittern was a premier instrument of casual music making much as is the guitar today.