The Five Solas identified the distinctive theological positions held by the reformers and continue to serve as distinguishing characteristics of Reformed Theology. Here is a brief description of each, as well as links to additional information. http://reasonabletheology.org/five-solas
Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German monk, priest, professor of theology and iconic figure of the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with money. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His theology challenged the authority and office of the Pope by teaching that the Bible is the only source of divinely revealed knowledge from God.