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Anatomy of the external and middle ear by Salman Javeed via slideshare

Continuity of the nasopharynx with the middle ear cavity via the auditory tube. Middle ear is also continuous with the mastoid air cells via the mastoid antrum, this is how you can spread an upper respiratory tract infection to the middle ear (otitis media) and the mastoid air cells (mastoiditis)


Endoscopic Anatomy of the Middle Ear by Manfred Tschabitscher. $148.00

The malleus appears to be very human-like, the findings show, while the incus and stapes resemble those of a more chimpanzee-like, or ape-like creature. Since both modern humans and our early ancestors share this human-like malleus, the changes in this bone must have occurred very early in our evolutionary history.


The strategic location of the tubal tonsil helps protect the middle ear against infections that are likely to spread from the nasopharynx

ear: external, middle, internal #anatomy