# Modular Arithmetic

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In modular arithmetic, one thinks of the whole numbers arranged around a circle, like the hours on a clock, instead of along an infinite straight line. Here we have seven “hours” on our clock—arithmetic modulo 7. To add 3 and 5 modulo 7, you start at 0, count 3 clockwise, and then a further 5 clockwise, this time ending on 1. To multiply 3 by 5 modulo 7, you start at 0 and count 3 clockwise 5 times, again ending up at 1.

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Introduction to Number Theory Learn the fundamentals of number theory from former MATHCOUNTS, AHSME, and AIME perfect scorer Mathew Crawford. Topics covered in the book include primes & composites, multiples & divisors, prime factorization and its uses, base numbers, modular arithmetic, divisibility rules, linear congruences, how to develop number sense, and much more.