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On June 22, 1877, the largest mass execution in PA history took place as ten alleged "Molly Maguires" were hanged in two PA locations, Mauch Chunk and Pottsville. The Molly Maguires were purported to be an Irish-American secret organization with labor union roots, which sought violent retribution primarily against the coal and railroad industries.]

This a photograph of the "Molly Maguires," a group of miners from the 1870s. They were one of the first groups of laborers to band together and fight for workers' rights. You can read the entire article on labor unions at:

The story of the legendary Pinkerton detective who took down the Molly Maguires and the Wild Bunch....

A "coffin notice", allegedly posted by Molly Maguires in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. It was presented by Franklin B. Gowen, along with other similar coffin notices, as evidence in an 1876 murder trial.

"The Molly Maguires," (1969) originally published in 1876 by Eveland & Harris of Tamaqua, Pa was republished in 1969 by Kelly Printing Co. of St. Claire, Pa, during a renewed interest in the Molly Maguires. The book now includes excerpts of the report of the case of the Commonwealth vs. John Kehoe, et al, who was sentenced to be hanged in 1877 for his involvement in the Molly Maguire murders of coal miners.

The Molly Maguires is a 1970 American film based on a 1969 novel by Arthur H. Lewis that was directed by Martin Ritt. It stars Richard Harris and Sean Connery.

WHO ARE THE MOLLY MAQUIRES ?--In the latter half of the 19th century, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, was an area rife with violence. Between 1861 and 1875, a series of violent assaults, arsons and murders was blamed on a secret society of Irish immigrants known as the Molly Maguires.

The Molly Maguires was a 19th century secret society of mainly Irish-American coal miners. Many historians believe the "Mollies" were present in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania in the United States between the time of the American Civil War until a series of sensational arrests and trials from 1876−78. The Molly Maguires were accused of kidnapping and other crimes.