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Northern Sudan found a leader in Muhammad Achmad, a religious figure known as the Mahdi. He proclaimed a jihad against the Egyptians and British that would return Islam to its original purity. The Mahdi won control of the Sudan.

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Mounted Sudanese warrior, late 1800s, wearing a long, heavy, mail hauberk and carrying a kaskara sword. It has been suggested that this may be Muhammad Ahmad (the Madhi), the leader of the Sudanese Islamic state who fought for independance from Khedival Egypt.

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Influence of Islamic Astronomy On Europe. This image shows "Alfraganus," the Latinized name by which Abu´l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani (d. ca. 861), one of the most distinguished Islamic astronomers, was known in Europe. This book is his most important work. Written between 833 and 857, it is a thorough, readable, and non-mathematical summary of Ptolemaic astronomy. This book was largely responsible for the transmission of the Greek astronomical system of Ptolemy to the…

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Muhammad Youssef, "Maker of Kounafé, Cairo-Egypt" 1960. Gihane Ahmad Collection / © Arab Image Foundation

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At the Battle of Omdurman (2 September 1898), an army commanded by the British General Sir Herbert Kitchener defeated the army of Abdullah al-Taashi, the successor to the self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad.

from WIRED

Rare, Beautiful and Disturbing Objects From the National Library of Medicine

The Anatomy of the Human Body, 1386; copied mid-1400s Mansur ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yusuf ibn Ilyas The skeleton depicted above from this early book of anatomy is viewed from the back with the head hyperextended so that the mouth is at the top of the page — a posture suggestive of a dissection table. Squatting figures such as this were the dominant model for anatomical illustration in the Islamic world until the introduction of European models.

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